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C. Marsh for Thomas Henry Huxley after Marsh had shown his recently collected Western fossils to Huxley on his only visit to the United States. Marsh convinced his English visitor about this sequence, thus compelling Huxley to revamp his lecture on the evolution of horses given in New York in 1876. Note the steady decrease in number of toes and increase in height of teeth. Since Marsh drew all his specimens the same size, we do not see the other classical trend of increase in stature. * Second, all branches of the tree either die or ramify further.

17 presents a revised iconography reflecting the lessons of the Burgess Shale. The maximum range of anatomical possibilities arises with the first rush of diversification. * *I have struggled over a proper name for this phenomenon of massive elimination from an initial set of forms, with concentration of all future history into a few surviving lineages. For many years, I thought of this pattern as "winnowing," but must now reject this metaphor because all meanings of winnowing refer to separation of the good from the bad (grain from chaff in the original)—while I believe that the preservation of only a few Burgess possibilities worked more like a lottery.

But when Charles Doolittle Walcott found the Burgess Shale in 1909, they seemed well-nigh intractable. In Walcott's time, the slate of Precambrian life was absolutely blank. Not a single well-documented fossil had been found from any time before the Cambrian explosion, and the earliest evidence of multicellular animals coincided with the earliest evidence of any life at all! From time to time, claims had been advanced—more than once by Walcott himself— for Precambrian animals, but none had withstood later scrutiny.

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Wonderful Life. The burgess shala and nature of history by Gould S


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