New PDF release: User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on

By Donald A. Norman

ISBN-10: 0898598729

ISBN-13: 9780898598728

This entire quantity is the made of a thorough collaborative attempt between researchers around the usa, Europe and Japan. the end result -- a metamorphosis within the approach we expect of people and pcs.

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While waiting for this data, process B cannot execute any further instructions. Now if these are the only two processes on the machine, the CPU is idle. Note that the two drives can be operating at the same time, as they are separate physical devices. Also, one process can be operating on the CPU while the drives are working. But there can be no overlap of processes. Only one can be active at any given time. Eventually, drive 1 delivers the required information. The operating system copies the data from drive 1 into the memory space of process A, and restarts that process at the next instruction after the request for data.

In an interactive system, the scheduler tries to make the response time as short as possible. A typical target would be 50–150 ms. Users can find it quite off-putting if the response time varies wildly, say from 10–1000 ms. If one keystroke is echoed immediately, and the next is not echoed for a second, a user is inclined to press the key again, with all the consequent errors. 43 A batch system will not be concerned with response time but with maximising the use of expensive peripherals. Many different scheduling algorithms have been developed for such systems.

They may make simultaneous requests for the same resource or the same service. As an example to illustrate the basic problem, consider a producer thread which puts items onto a linked list and a consumer thread which takes them off. Several pointers have to be changed when inserting or removing an item on a linked list. They cannot all be changed simultaneously, so there is always a short time when the links are inconsistent. Now suppose that the producer is context-switched out at just that inconsistent point, and the consumer context switched in.

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User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-computer Interaction by Donald A. Norman


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