By Sajal Mathur
The linkages among WTO ideas governing alternate and effort protection – with a undeniable measure of concentrate on India – are the most topic of this e-book. The edited quantity brings jointly the perspectives of lecturers, policymakers and specialists with huge adventure protecting WTO and overseas exchange concerns. the problems tested comprise mapping the linkages among alternate and effort safeguard within the WTO agreements, case legislations, accession and Doha negotiations; assessing the problems which may be raised by way of power deficit or power surplus international locations on the WTO; interpreting the provisions of the ECT and NAFTA vis-`-vis the Indian coverage framework; and reading the exchange regimes of chosen OPEC participants and different significant providers of fossil fuels to India. whereas the Indian standpoint is clear within the contributions, this publication may also be of curiosity to a global viewers, as alternate, the WTO and effort safety are international issues and of relevance to all practitioners and teachers engaged on those issues.
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Extra info for Trade, the WTO and Energy Security: Mapping the Linkages for India
WTO Members are also prohibited from applying any other duties or charges on the importation of the product, unless specified in the goods schedule. However, an interesting issue is the extent to which export duties and tariff concessions are subject to WTO commitments since the focus during the previous trade rounds were predominantly on import duties. This is especially important in the light of measures taken by countries to increase export duties on natural resource commodities. Article II of the GATT 1994 which gives effect to the tariff concessions generally provides disciplines only with respect to import duties.
If this violation is found to exist, it should still be determined what exemptions are available to these countries to maintain this activity as an incentive to attract foreign investment. Specifically in the context of energy inputs, specificity would exist if feedstock is only sold more cheaply to particular enterprises. Therefore, some kind of discrimination should exist between various enterprises in receiving this benefit. 25 Article 2(b) of the SCM Agreement provides that when a granting authority establishes objective criteria or conditions governing eligibility for a subsidy, ‘specificity’ does not exist if eligibility is ‘automatic’.
Importantly, Paragraph 1(a) of GATT Article II imposes a fairly broad obligation on WTO Members (Roessler 1975). Paragraph 1(a) of GATT Article II reads as follows: Each contracting party shall accord to the commerce of the other contracting parties treatment no less favourable than that provided for in the appropriate Part of the Schedule annexed to the Agreement. Stated differently, nothing in the negotiating history or practice of the GATT suggests that export duties are not amenable to bound tariff commitments under the GATT.
Trade, the WTO and Energy Security: Mapping the Linkages for India by Sajal Mathur