Download e-book for iPad: The Religious Orders in England, Volume 3: The Tudor Age by David Knowles

By David Knowles

This quantity opens with a survey of monastic existence and actions within the early Tudor interval, which throws new mild at the fortunes of the Cistercian abbeys and at the impact upon the priests of the recent humanist schooling. Chapters are dedicated to Bishop Redman's visitations of the white canons, to the agricultural targets of past extra of Worcester, to the friars ranged for and opposed to the hot studying, and to the Carthusians; there also are a few personality sketches of striking abbots and others. There follows a assessment of the altering non secular weather: of Wolsey's makes an attempt at reform, of the all-perspective impact of Erasmus and of the occupation of Elizabeth Barton. the commercial country of the monasteries is mentioned as a prelude to the sombre tale of the Suppression, illuminated by means of infrequent gleams of heroism. The destiny and after-careers of the spiritual are handled in complete from the list resources; there are chapters at the aftermath in Mary's reign and the linking with smooth Benedictines, and an epilogue appears again over six centuries of English monasticism.

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Alexander Pope 4 THE MEASURE OF THINGS IF YOU HAD to select the least convivial scientific field trip of all time, you could certainly do worse than the French Royal Academy of Sciences’ Peruvian expedition of 1735. Led by a hydrologist named Pierre Bouguer and a soldier-mathematician named Charles Marie de La Condamine, it was a party of scientists and adventurers who traveled to Peru with the purpose of triangulating distances through the Andes. At the time people had lately become infected with a powerful desire to understand the Earth—to determine how old it was, and how massive, where it hung in space, and how it had come to be.

With the instinct for ordeal that characterized the age, scientists set off for more than a hundred locations around the globe—to Siberia, China, South Africa, Indonesia, and the woods of Wisconsin, among many others. France dispatched thirty-two observers, Britain eighteen more, and still others set out from Sweden, Russia, Italy, Germany, Ireland, and elsewhere. It was history’s first cooperative international scientific venture, and almost everywhere it ran into problems. Many observers were waylaid by war, sickness, or shipwreck.

Out of the floating material that was left over, two microscopic grains floated close enough together to be joined by electrostatic forces. This was the moment of conception for our planet. All over the inchoate solar system, the same was happening. Colliding dust grains formed larger and larger clumps. Eventually the clumps grew large enough to be called planetesimals. As these endlessly bumped and collided, they fractured or split or recombined in endless random permutations, but in every encounter there was a winner, and some of the winners grew big enough to dominate the orbit around which they traveled.

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The Religious Orders in England, Volume 3: The Tudor Age by David Knowles

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