By Harriet Pass Freidenreich
Original 12 months of publication: 1979
This paintings is a pioneer learn of a little-known a part of the trendy Jewish international that's instantaneously special and a microcosm of ecu Jewry as an entire. Coming jointly basically after international battle I, with the production of the Yugoslav kingdom, the Jews of Yugoslavia differed between themselves in beginning and outlook, reflecting their antecedent heritages in either the Ottoman and Habsburg empires. Their tale could be noticeable as a quest for group, to forge a team spirit of communal objective and endeavor.
Comprising Yugoslav Jewry have been conventional Sephardim in addition to Reform and Orthodox Ashkenazim. Integrationists, Zionists, and Sephardic nationalists, to boot, vigorously participated within the dominant Jewish problems with the day. Like their non-Jewish neighbors—Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Roman Catholic Croats, and Muslim Bosniaks—the Jews of Yugoslavia, too, have been studying to coexist of their new native land, inside of a unmarried geopolitical cohesion yet amid substantial local diversity.
The current research makes a speciality of the 3 greatest Jewish groups in Yugoslavia—Zagreb, Belgrade, and Sarajevo. half One strains the improvement of Jewish lifestyles in each one of those facilities and analyzes the socio-economic scenario of some of the teams of Jews. half examines communal affairs on either the neighborhood and nationwide degrees, and likewise explores Jewish organizational and cultural actions. half 3 treats varieties of nationwide identification, involvement in political existence, and professional executive kin with the Jews. An epilogue discusses the influence of the Holocaust and the customers for the way forward for the Yugoslav Jewish community.
Based on Serbo-Croatian assets and large archival examine, The Jews of Yugoslavia is an bettering addition to the JPS roster of historic and communal studies.
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Extra info for The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
In 1895, of the 4,058 Jews who resided in the city, 3,159 were Sephardim and 899 Ashkenazim, and by 1910 there were 4,985 Sephardim and 1, 412 Ashkenazim living in Sarajevo, making a total Jewish population of 6,397. ) During the interwar period, the number of Jews in Sarajevo remained fairly constant, 7,458, or 11 percent of the city’s population, in the 1921 Yugoslav census and 7,615, or 10 percent of the total population of 78,173, according to the 1931 census. 17 This represents an increase of only 9 percent since 1921.
It possesses nevertheless a synagogue in Belgrade and enjoys full religious autonomy, in the same way, if not by the same title, as Christian churches. 32 It was not until 1866, however, that the community was formally constituted and received an official charter. 33 While previously the community had conducted all its internal business in Ladino, Ruso introduced Serbian as the language of administration for Jewish affairs. 34 Thereafter, the legal position of the Sephardic community was clearly defined and regulated by communal statutes.
10 In the seventeenth century Belgrade became the third center of Jewish learning in the Balkans, after Istanbul and Salonika. There exists a considerable body of responsa in Hebrew and Ladino written by the Belgrade rabbis of this period. In 1617 Rabbi Juda Lerma of Salonika became chief rabbi of Belgrade and started a yeshiva there. He was succeeded in 1643 by Simha ben Gerson Koen, a native Ashkenazic Jew of Belgrade, and in 1662 by Rabbi Josef Almoznino of Salonika, a biblical and talmudic scholar educated in Belgrade.
The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community by Harriet Pass Freidenreich