By John Schwarzmantel
After the nice revolutions of 1776 in the USA and 1789 in France, sleek countries started to exhibit political fight as a clash among Left and correct, a spectrum of ideologies together with socialism, liberalism, conservatism, nationalism, and later, communism and fascism, between others. those dominant ideologies mirrored the topics of business society, robust realms, and the period of sophistication politics.
Today, even if, a chain of quick social and political ameliorations have provoked a world-wide obstacle of ideologies. New expertise threatens the conventional social constitution of heavy undefined. elevated globalization demanding situations the sovereignty of the countryside, and sophistication divisions look much less salient. In gentle of those adjustments, do sleek ideologies have whatever to claim to us as electorate of the area today?
The Age of Ideology analyzes the modern relevance of the most ideologies which were vital to political fight during the last centuries. Believing the postmodern critique of ideologies as insufficient for facing society's difficulties, John Schwarzmantel argues convincingly that political ideologies nonetheless supply crucial organizing frameworks for political debate and action.
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Extra resources for The Age of Ideology: Political Ideologies from the American Revolution to Postmodern Times
58). The phenomena of twentieth-century politics include the barbarism of fascism and the mass terror of Stalinism, to which so many intellectuals (and others) were blind, as is demonstrated by Fran9ois Furet in Le passe d'une illusion (1995). Indeed Furet and others like him seem to suggest that it was precisely because of the uncritical acceptance of certain elements of 'the Enlightenment project' that many people were reluctant to acknowledge the true face of the Stalinist system. They acquiesced in its atrocities and thought that the terror was an acceptable price to pay for the progress brought about by the Russian Revolution.
America was fortunate in that, properly speaking, revolution was not necessary to establish democracy: In America the democratic revolution is long since over, or, rather, there never was such a revolution. The Americans never had class privileges to abolish or exclusive rights to overthrow (Lamberti, 1989, p. 195). As de Tocqueville observed in Democracy in America, The Americans have this great advantage, that they attained democracy without the sufferings of a democratic revolution and that they were born equal instead of becoming so (Tocqueville, 1968, vol.
55). Hence Kant's political caution: the present age was, he thought, not an enlightened age, but an age of enlightenment, the process had started but was by no means accomplished. The other significant aspect is Kant's distinction between the public use of reason and its private use. ). This is contrasted with the private use of reason, which is bound up with the particular position a person occupies, as taxpayer or soldier, religious or academic functionary, in which the use of reason can be limited without, as Kant put it, hindering the cause of enlightenment.
The Age of Ideology: Political Ideologies from the American Revolution to Postmodern Times by John Schwarzmantel