By Sharon Shalev
This booklet examines the increase and proliferation of 'Supermaxes', huge prisons devoted to keeping prisoners in lengthy and strict solitary confinement, within the usa because the overdue Eighties.
Drawing on exact entry to 2 Supermax prisons and on in-depth interviews with criminal officers, legal architects, present and previous prisoners, psychological healthiness pros, penal, criminal, and human rights specialists, it offers a holistic view of the speculation, perform and results of those prisons. Given the historical makes use of of solitary confinement, the e-book additionally strains continuities and discontinuities in its use on either side of the Atlantic during the last centuries.
It argues that instead of being a completely 'new' kind of imprisonment, Supermax prisons draw on ideas of structure, surveillance and regulate which have been set out within the early nineteenth century yet that are now more desirable by means of the main complex applied sciences on hand to present day felony planners and directors. It asks why a sort of confinement which were discredited some time past is now proposed because the most sensible answer for facing 'difficult', 'dangerous' or 'disruptive' prisoners, and assesses the real bills of Supermax confinement.
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Additional resources for Supermax : Controlling Risk Through Solitary Confinement
10 At the unit, isolation was coupled with mandatory therapeutic programmes, called, in the spirit of the times, ‘CARE’ (Control and Rehabilitation Effort). Around the same time, the Federal Bureau of Prisons initiated another behaviour-modification programme, START (Special Treatment and Rehabilitative Training), at the Federal Medical Center for Prisoners at Springfield, Missouri. 18 Solitary confinement as a penal strategy: a brief history The programme was aimed at troublemakers who until that time had been dispersed in various segregation units across the USA, and whose behaviour was ‘out of control … even while in the institution’s segregation unit.
As prison systems are expanding, so are related industries providing goods and services to them, and ‘what was once a niche business for a handful of companies has become a multibillion-dollar industry with its own trade shows and conventions, web-sites, mailcatalogue orders and direct marketing campaigns’ (Schlosser 1998: 14). Examining the marketing of penal commodities and the use of security as the selling point in the US corrections market through an analysis of advertisements appearing in the trade magazine Corrections Today between 1949 and 1999, Lynch (2002) found that, as rehabilitation and reintegration concerns began to wane from the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, institutional security concerns became more explicit and security became the most prominent feature in ads.
The involvement of private companies is not limited to the provision of goods and services. 9 per cent of prisoners (state and federal) were held in private facilities. 19 Although California does contract with private companies to manage some of its prisons, there is currently no discussion of handing over high-security prisons to the private sector, as the state elects to retain the power over those labelled as the ‘worst of the worst’. Professional interests: the case of the California Correctional Peace Officers Association (CCPOA) Every day they ‘walk the line’ among some of the toughest, most violent inmates in the world….
Supermax : Controlling Risk Through Solitary Confinement by Sharon Shalev