By Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman, Toine F. Cleophas (auth.)
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6. 7. Matthews DE, Farewell VT. Using and understanding medical statistics. Karger, Melbourne, Australia, 1996. Cohen A, Posner J. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Neth, 1995. Bailar JC, Mosteller F. Medical Uses of Statistics. 986. Swinscow TO. Statistics at square one. BMJ Publishing Group, London, UK, 1996. Glantz SA. Primer of Biostatistics. McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1992. Motulsky H. Intuitive Statistics. Oxford University Press. New York, 1995. Kuhlmann J, Mrozikiewicz A. What should a clinical pharmacologist know to start a clinical trial?
2. Kaplan-Meier survival curve with 95% CIs. With the Kaplan-Meier method, survival is recalculated every time a patient dies ( approaches to survival different from the Kaplan-Meier approach are (1) the actuarial method, where the x-axis is divided into regular intervals and (2) life-table analysis using tables instead of graphs). To calculate the fraction of patients who survive a particular day, simply divide the numbers still alive after the day by the number alive before the day. Also exclude those who are lost=censored on the very day and remove from both the numerator and denominator.
The data from both samples are ranked together in ascending order of magnitude. Equal values are averaged. 2. Add up the rank numbers of each of the two samples. 5. 05. We can therefore not reject the null hypothesis of no difference, and have to conclude that the two samples are not significantly different from each other. 28 CHAPTER 2 References I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Matthews DE, Farewell VT. Using and understanding medical statistics. Karger, Melbourne, Australia, 1996. Cohen A, Posner J. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Neth, 1995.
Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials by Ton J. Cleophas, Aeilko H. Zwinderman, Toine F. Cleophas (auth.)