By H. H. Read F.R.S. (auth.)
The final thorough revision of Rutley's components of Mineralogy seemed because the twenty third variation in 1936. In next variants, an attempt to maintain abreast with the good growth within the technology was once made by means of small (and usually awkward) variations and, particularly, via the addition of an autonomous bankruptcy at the atomic constitution of minerals. For this current variation, the entire re-setting of the publication has made attainable not just the combination of the further bankruptcy on atomic constitution into its right position within the money owed of the chemical and actual houses of minerals, but additionally vast rewriting and rearrangement of the cloth within the first a part of the publication. To this half, additionally, has been additional a brief bankruptcy at the type of minerals. within the moment half, the Descrip tion of Minerals, a variety of, if now not so wide, variations and modernisations were brought. a few dozen new figures were extra, usually within the early a part of the publication. extra particularly, the main adjustments during this re-creation are the subsequent. The digital constitution of atoms provides the consultant traces for the total account of mineral-chemistry; extra goods trouble the electrochemical sequence, of curiosity within the prevalence and metallurgical remedy of ores, and chemical research. at the actual facet, the dependence of actual houses of minerals on their atomic constitution is emphasised and, moreover, a quick account of radioactivity and isotopic age-determination is given.
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Extra resources for Rutley’s Elements of Mineralogy
Pieces of quartz when rubbed together in a dark room emit a phosphorescent light. Exposure to sunlight or even ordinary diffused light elicits a phosphorescence from many minerals, as may be observed by transferring them rapidly to a dark room. Diamond, ruby and certain other minerals show a brilliant phosphorescence after exposure to X-rays. Willemite, the zinc silicate from certain localities, phosphoresces when exposed to X-rays, a fact employed to make certain that this mineral has been completely extracted from its ore.
Elements in the 4th, 5th and 6th periods which are shown surrounded by a frame are of variable valency, having special features in their electronic structures, and are known as 'transitional' . The Periodic Table is used as a basis for the classification of minerals described in Part II of this book. This classification is described and illustrated on p. 220 and the Table on p. 222. Chemical Compounds. It has been noted earlier on p. 16 that the structural difference between the atoms of metals and non-metals lies in the number of electrons in their outer shells.
Thus, the action of hydrochloric acid HCI with the base, sodium hydroxide, NaOH, gives the salt sodium chloride NaCl, together with water H 20, as shown in the equation below:HCI + NaOH = NaCI + H 20 acid + base = salt + water. Expressed in terms of ions this equation becomes:Hl+ + Cll- + Na 1+ +- (OH)I- = Na 1+ + Cll- + H 20. When all the HI + ions from the acid have been partnered by the OHl- ions from the base neutralization has taken place. Insoluble metal hydroxides act like the true soluble bases on neutralization by acids and form salts; on this account they are often included among the bases.
Rutley’s Elements of Mineralogy by H. H. Read F.R.S. (auth.)