By Anita Kalunta-Crumpton (eds.)
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Extra info for Race, Ethnicity, Crime and Criminal Justice in the Americas
How can we explain this finding? To what extent are perceptions of racial discrimination accurate? To answer this question we must turn to the empirical data. Racial profiling Racial profiling can be said to exist when members of a particular racial or ethnic group become subject to much greater levels of criminal justice and/ or security surveillance than the “average” or “typical” citizen. , driving while black); 2) significant racial differences in customs search and interrogation practices; and 3) particular undercover or sting operations which target specific racial/ ethnic communities (see Harris, 2002; Wortley and Tanner, 2005; 2004a; 2004b; 2003).
The 2004 General Social Survey (GSS), for example, contacted a random sample of over 24,000 Canadians and found that visible minorities had the same rate of violent and property victimization as whites (see Perreault, 2008). ). Indeed, research using disaggregated racial categories suggests that black and Aboriginal Canadians are far more exposed to violent victimization experiences than are people from other racial backgrounds. For example, the 2000 Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey, a study of over 3,300 Toronto high school students, found that black students were significantly more likely to report multiple violent victimization experiences, including serious physical assaults, death threats, weapons-related threats, assault with a weapon and sexual assault.
They are only filled out when individual police officers want to record, for intelligence purposes, that they have stopped and questioned a particular individual. Contact cards contain various pieces of information, including the individual’s name and home address, the reason for the stop and the location and time of the encounter. These cards also include basic demographic Canada 27 information, including age, gender and skin color. Police argue that this information helps them keep track of who is present on the streets at certain times and locations and that this information may help them identify potential crime suspects and victims.
Race, Ethnicity, Crime and Criminal Justice in the Americas by Anita Kalunta-Crumpton (eds.)