Download e-book for iPad: Product Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and by Ulrich Bröckel, Willi Meier, Gerhard Wagner

By Ulrich Bröckel, Willi Meier, Gerhard Wagner

ISBN-10: 3527332200

ISBN-13: 9783527332205

Covering the entire worth chain - from product standards and houses through method applied sciences and kit to real-world functions - this reference represents a entire evaluate of the subject. The editors and majority of the authors are participants of the eu Federation of Chemical Engineering, with backgrounds from academia in addition to undefined. consequently, this multifaceted sector is highlighted from assorted angles: crucial physico-chemical history, most modern size and prediction suggestions, and various functions from beauty as much as foodstuff industry.

Recommended interpreting for procedure, pharma and chemical engineers, chemists in undefined, and people operating within the pharmaceutical, meals, cosmetics, dyes and pigments industries.

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Additional resources for Product Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and Pastes

Example text

29a). The thickening effect increases with particle loading and depends on particle size, particle size distribution, and interactions among particles [54]. Early rheological and light scattering results [56, 57] suggested that the shear thickening phenomenon is due to a shear induced order–disorder transition and the shear thinning observed at intermediate shear rates is attributed to the formation of a layered structure. Repulsive interactions are assumed to stabilize this layered structure. 59 [55].

Hence, the rheological behavior of such systems is similar to that of hard spheres with aeff ≈ a + L. In particular, if the particle radius a is small the stabilizing layer can contribute significantly to the effective volume φ eff = φ(1 + L/a)3 ; and thus give rise to a strong viscosity increase. When using polyelectrolytes or ionic stabilizers with weak functional acid groups, the thickness of the stabilizer layer L depends on the ionic strength and pH of the dispersion medium, which determine the degree of dissociation and range of electrostatic interactions among the functional acid groups.

1. For higher particle concentrations multi-particle interactions become imperative and a prediction of viscosity from first principles is still lacking. 4 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions introduced to correlate the viscosity of concentrated dispersions to the particle volume fraction. 26) φmax where φ max is the maximum packing fraction or the volume fraction at which the zero shear viscosity diverges. 24) at low particle concentration. 27) φmax This model suits best as φ → φ max . 8 shows the volume fraction dependence of relative viscosity, according to the models described above.

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Product Design and Engineering: Formulation of Gels and Pastes by Ulrich Bröckel, Willi Meier, Gerhard Wagner

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