By Koichi Hamai, Robert Harris, Mike Hough, Renaud Ville, Ugljesa Zvekic
When they maintain a recognisable universal middle, probation structures around the global are drastically assorted, and plenty of are in a nation of speedy switch. Probation around the global is a learn of probation in ten nations, starting from the well-resourced and seriously professionalised companies of england and the outdated Commonwealth to the reliance on lay-supervisors in Japan and the community-based approach which has lately been organize in Papua new Guinea. Probation around the global resulted from collaborative examine carried out by way of the United international locations Interregional Crime and Justice study Institute (UNICRI) and the British domestic workplace. the 1st a part of the booklet includes a assessment of the advance and convergence of probation in the Civil legislation and customary legislations traditions. the second one half describes the origins and capabilities of platforms within the ten international locations, drawing out salient ameliorations and similarities. it's going to offer valuable examining for college students of legal justice and criminology and for execs operating in probation managment and govt.
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Additional resources for Probation Round the World: A Comparative Study
Probation need not be accompanies by supervision. • Probation officers have generally lower status than their British counterparts; their training varies widely, they have little connection with social work or social reform, and their claim for professional status is tenuous. • Though much US probation has a correctional orientation geared to law enforcement, tensions and perceptions of role conflict continue to exist, particularly for female staff, who studies show to be overall less punitive than their male counterparts (Whitehead 1989; Whitehead and Lindquist 1992; Silverman 1993).
1980; Sahay 1981; Jeyasingh 1982; Singh, M. 1987; Srivastava 1987; Tandon 1988; Chakrabarti 1992), Israel (Reifen 1969; Tadanir 1969; Bensinger 1982; 1984; Frishtik 1988; 1991; Cohen et al. 1991; Nalla and Newman 1991), Italy (Breda and Ferracuti 1980), Jamaica (McBean 1972), Netherlands (Heijder 1972; Nuyten-Edelbroek and Tigges 1980; Junger-Tas and Tigges 1982; Woelinga 1990), New Zealand (Webb 1982; Pratt 1990; Eskridge and Newbold 1993), Nigeria (Milner 1972), Poland (Walczak 1969; 1976), Sweden (Edholm and Bishop 1983; Rouse 1985) and the USA (where, in addition to numerous journal articles and works cited elsewhere, recent books include Bartollas 1985; Allen et al.
This provoked defiance from the legal profession, and to secure an authoritative determination of judicial powers of suspension a case in which Judge Killits, following tradition not statute, had passed a prison sentence suspended for five years was chosen for Supreme Court adjudication. The Supreme Court’s unanimous judgement, handed down by Chief Justice White in 1916, was that irrespective of common law tradition suspension was unconstitutional. 4 A federal probation law was finally passed in 1925.
Probation Round the World: A Comparative Study by Koichi Hamai, Robert Harris, Mike Hough, Renaud Ville, Ugljesa Zvekic