By M. G. Bulmer
The easiest intermediate-level rationalization of classical information out there! From simple cube percentages to trendy regression research and correlation, Professor Bulmer presents causes, graphs, charts, and difficulties (with answers). equivalent pressure is given to concept and purposes. the writer assumes no past wisdom of data or likelihood; in basic terms simple calculus is required.
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Extra resources for Principles of Statistics
Generally speaking, the reliability of a measure increases the more items there are. Having more than one item allows us to measure the inter-item reliability of the scale. This gives us an idea of how consistent the items are as measures of the same characteristic. The use of several items allows us to assess the variable in different circumstances. For example, a measure of honesty might not be much use if it simply samples a single domain of experience. A good measure of honesty might include honesty in relation to one’s mother, one’s partner, the tax inspector, the boss, and so forth.
For example, we would expect a measure of intelligence to be strongly related to other measures of intelligence (convergent validity) but not to be related to measures of other variables such as anxiety and aggression (discriminant validity). • Construct validity represents the degree to which a measure responds in the way it is supposed to respond theoretically. For example, we would expect students to show greater anxiety prior to taking an exam than prior to listening to a lecture. If our measure did not discriminate between those two situations, we may question its construct validity.
If they fail to agree, there are obviously difficulties of interpretation. All of this may appear to be something of a nuisance. However, psychological research is not like measuring pieces of wood at the DIY store. Measurements in psychology are frequently matters of controversy and dispute as much as psychological theories are. The problems are part of the intellectual fascination of psychology. 1 STANDARD MEASURES In many fields of psychology there exist well-established measuring techniques.
Principles of Statistics by M. G. Bulmer