By Gottfried Glockner
The most topic of this e-book is the characterization of plastics. To a excessive measure the houses of those polymers rely on the distribution of the molar mass and of different structural positive factors, and small deviations often have an excellent influence. for that reason the characterization of polymers can't be limited to the selection of suggest values yet needs to yield details on those distributions. utilizing classical tools, the analytical fractionation of polymer homologues and structurally isomeric polymers is very time-consuming. consequently, effective chromatographic options are being more and more hired in smooth polymer characterization. within the first position, high-performance liquid chromatography is utilized, within the kind of measurement exclusion chromatography. it's also attainable, even if, to exploit different separation modes. more room is dedicated to those different chances during this quantity than is merited by means of their present diversity of purposes, because the writer believes that many separation difficulties can be solved by way of separation options of the non-exclusion kind. however, a lot emphasis is put on dimension exclusion chromatography.
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Additional info for Polymer Characterization by Liquid Chromatography
Polar intermolecular forces are of special importance for the adsorption. Affinity chromatography is a technique for separating substances according to their different abilities specifically and reversibly to bind to groups of the stationary phase. In this way it is possible to solve rather dificult problems such as the isolation of enzymes. Ligand chromatography allows the separation of stereoisomers. Depending on their configurations, the sample components form more or less strongly bonded complexes with ligand groups of the chromatographic bed, thus being differently retained.
Also for a regular 1,2-constitution there are several possibilities for the sterical position of the substituents, which are shown schematically in Fig. 4-3. , 11111111 1 1 Fig. 2-addition (see Fig. (4-2a)). The carbon backbone is straightened, extending in a plane normal to the plane of the drawing. a) Isotactic configuration b) Syndiotacticconfiguration c) Atactic configuration 56 -CH,- 4. Macromolecules: size, constitution, configuration, conformation H in PVC. The H atoms are not indicated.
D) Gradient elution with a continuous change from A to B also produces a good separation. A good separation within a certain range of distribution coefficients always implies a poor separation in other ranges. This is the fundamental problem of chromatographic separation, the general elution problem. Its effect increases with increasing differences between the individual components of the mixture. Special techniques are required to overcome this general elution problem. For example, the development can be started with a weak solvent and completed with a stronger one.
Polymer Characterization by Liquid Chromatography by Gottfried Glockner