By Shahid Javed Burki
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Extra info for Pakistan under Bhutto, 1971–1977
THE FALL OF AYUB On 25 March 1969, after eleven and a half years in power, Field-Marshal A yub Khan surrendered the presidency to General Yahya Khan, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. A 40 Pakistan under Bhutto, 1971-7 number of factors contributed to the collapse of Pakistan's first military regime. and largely self-supporting economic growth, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's relentless opposition to Ayub Khan's leadership and the system of government that he had established. 5 None of these factors alone would have dislodged A yub; together they created a situation that the rapidly aging military dictator found very difficult to tackle with his customary finesse.
During the 1960s, gross domestic product increased at the rate of over 7·2 per cent per annum. Since population grew by just over 3 per cent during this period, the increase in incomes per head was of the order of 4·2 per cent per annum. Ayub Khan saw this performance as ample justification for his intervention in the political life of the country. Not only was the economy doing twice as well as in the pre-martial law period, its rate of growth during the 1960s was nearly three times that of the neighbouring countries of South Asia.
However, with the return of the landlords to the political arena and their absorption into the Muslim League, the 'rural progressives' were obliged to start a party of their own. Those who stayed on in the Muslim League - a group best represented by Mumtaz Daultana -lost their following, while those who moved into the NAP were to build for themselves a strong political base, particularly in the provinces of the Northwest Frontier and Baluchistan. This conflict between rural progressives and conservatives was to have considerable significance in influencing Ayub Khan's approach to political and economic development.
Pakistan under Bhutto, 1971–1977 by Shahid Javed Burki