By Walt Jung
Operational amplifiers play an essential function in smooth electronics layout. the most recent op amps have robust new positive aspects, making them stronger to be used in lots of items requiring susceptible sign amplification, corresponding to scientific units, communications know-how, optical networks, and sensor interfacing. The Op Amp functions guide may be the final word op amp reference e-book on hand. This booklet is brimming with uptodate software circuits, invaluable layout information, and indepth insurance of the most recent suggestions to simplify op amp circuit designs, and increase their functionality. As an additional bonus, a range at the historical past of op amp improvement offers an in depth and expertly researched review, of curiosity to a person excited about this crucial quarter of electronics. * Seven significant sections filled with technical info * whatever an engineer probably want to find out about designing with op amps are available during this e-book * Op Amp functions instruction manual is a pragmatic reference for a difficult engineering field Read more...
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Extra info for Op Amp Applications Handbook
It is possible to perform zener zap trimming in the packaged IC to compensate for assembly-related shifts in the offset voltage. However, trimming in the package requires extra package pins. Alternately, trimming at the wafer level requires additional probe pads. Probe pads do not scale effectively as the process features shrink. Thus, the die area required for trimming is relatively constant, regardless of the process geometries. Some form of bipolar transistor is required for the trim structures, therefore a purely MOS-based process may not have zener zap capability.
As a result, the bias currents of a bias-compensated op amp may not only be mismatched, they can actually flow in opposite directions. In most applications this isn't important, but in some it can have unexpected effects. ) In many cases, the bias current compensation feature is not mentioned on an op amp data sheet, and a simplified schematic isn't supplied. It is easy to determine if bias current compensation is used by examining the bias current specification. If the bias current is specified as a "+" value, the op amp is most likely compensated for bias current.
One is by means of bias current compensation, to be described further below. Another method of reducing bias current is by the use of superbeta transistors for Q l-Q2. Superbeta transistors are specially processed devices with a very narrow base region. They typically have a current gain of thousands or tens of thousands (rather than the more usual hundreds). Op amps with superbeta input stages have much lower bias currents, but they also have more limited frequency response. Since the breakdown voltages of superbeta devices are quite low, they also require additional circuitry to protect the input stage from damage caused by overvoltage (for example, they wouldn't operate in the circuit of Figure 1-22).
Op Amp Applications Handbook by Walt Jung