New PDF release: North Africa And the Middle East

By Jeffrey A. Gritzner, Charles F. Gritzner

ISBN-10: 0791081451

ISBN-13: 9780791081457

ISBN-10: 143810457X

ISBN-13: 9781438104577

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Surface. Additional salt is added by saline springs that contribute to its water volume. Many lakes, such as those of Mesopotamia, are shallow and little more than marshes. More significant are the larger saltwater lakes that occupy broad basins on the Anatolian plateau and in northwestern Iran. The largest are Lake Van and Lake Urmia, both of which were of great importance to various ancient kingdoms in the region. Lake Van reaches a depth of 82 feet (25 meters) and covers 1,434 square miles (3,714 square kilometers).

There was a widespread belief that a shaft, the axis mundi (axis of the world), connected the heavens, the earth’s surface, and the underworld. The point at which the shaft was believed to pass through the earth’s surface was considered to be sacred space. Here was an appropriate place to erect a temple. A flood, an epidemic, a famine, or other disaster could signal the movement of the shaft. A priest or geomancer would be called upon to determine where the shaft now passed through the earth’s surface.

And expanded eastward into Anatolia. There, they encountered the Hattic people, who were engaged in highly sophisticated metallurgy. c. As the Hittites established themselves in Anatolia, Iranians entered the Middle East from the steppes of Central Asia. C. c. saw the emergence of several very important civilizations. It was also a period of continued cultural change and periodic conflict between competing empires. Hittites Hittites were a warlike people who differed greatly from the peaceful Minoans.

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North Africa And the Middle East by Jeffrey A. Gritzner, Charles F. Gritzner


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