By Dexter Perkins
This student-oriented textual content is written in an off-the-cuff, jargon-free type to offer a contemporary advent to mineralogy. It emphasizes real-world purposes and the historical past and human facet of mineralogy. This booklet ways the topic by means of explaining the bigger, comprehensible issues first, after which explaining why the "little issues" are very important for figuring out the bigger photo.
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If we are to understand the properties of the Earth and its minerals, we must understand basic chemistry and the elements. In this chapter we define minerals and elements and discuss why they are important. We review the development of modern chemistry and how it relates to mineralogy and discuss the behavior of elements in minerals and the significance of mineral formulas. MINERALS The word mineral means different things to different people. In ancient times, people divided all things on Earth into the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdoms, so a mineral was any natural inorganic substance.
377) so that the number of atoms of O2- is exactly 8. 95)O8. Ideal feldspar formulas have stoichiometry described by (Ca,Na,K) (Fe,Al,Si)4O8; the Grorud feldspar comes close. The small discrepancy is due to analytical error. 438 are present in all minerals and provide valuable information for geologists attempting to determine how, when, and where specific minerals formed. They have little effect on most mineral properties. A notable exception to this is sometimes color; even trace amounts of some elements can have major effects on a mineral’s color.
For example, elements in the first period contain electrons in the 1s orbital; elements in the second period have electrons in the 2s- and 2porbitals; elements in the third period have electrons in the 3s- and 3p-orbitals; and so on. The first period has only two elements, while the second and third have eight each. The fourth through seventh periods contain 10 extra elements having electrons in d-orbitals. The sixth through seventh periods contain an additional 14 elements with electrons in f-orbitals (which are listed separately at the bottom of the table as the lanthanides—also called rare earth elements—and actinides to keep the table from becoming too wide).
Mineralogy by Dexter Perkins