By Barry Golding, Suzanne D. Golding
This booklet explains how and the place copper and fossil fuels have been shaped and the most probably destiny for the extraction of copper and coal. the vibrant chronology of our efforts to extract metals from minerals and effort from fossil fuels is gifted from earliest instances until eventually the current day. The tricky thought of human sustainability is tested within the context of regularly reducing genuine costs of power and metals. This ebook integrates the newest findings on our historical use of expertise to repeatedly produce more affordable metals even supposing ore grades were reducing. additionally, it exhibits that the speed of technological development needs to elevate if metals are to be produced much more affordably within the future.
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Additional info for Metals, Energy and Sustainability: The Story of Doctor Copper and King Coal
They include the tropical Carboniferous coals of Euramerica and the temperate Permian coals of Gondwana that formed under varied cool to cold conditions from the distinctive glossopteris flora. Glossopteris was a new type of plant with fern-like fronds but seeds rather than spores (Fig. 8), which dominated the deciduous forests of the southern hemisphere during the Permian Period. Identiﬁcation of glossopteris fossils in Australia, Antarctica, Southern Africa, India and South America provided evidence that these land masses were once joined in the supercontinent Gondwana.
Copper liberated from the breakdown of sulﬁde minerals may also be precipitated as native copper and secondary sulﬁdes such as covellite and chalcocite in the vicinity of the water table. The most common copper minerals in primary ores are chalcopyrite, bornite and tetrahedritetennantite. The earliest metalsmiths exploited near surface deposits of copper oxide and carbonate minerals, which were easier to mine and not as difﬁcult to smelt as the underlying sulﬁde ores. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017 B.
1 Copper Mineralogy and Formation 27 source of copper because of their high copper grades. 9% copper (Glencore 2015). Sediment-hosted stratiform copper deposits in sedimentary basins account for some 20% of historic world copper production and were some of the earliest copper ores mined in Europe and the Middle East (Zientek et al. 2010). The copper ores are said to be stratiform because the copper minerals are concentrated in dark-coloured sedimentary layers within or underlain by red beds. These copper ores formed when copper-bearing oxidising sedimentary brines reacted with organic matter-rich rock types or mixed with reduced low salinity water in sandstones.
Metals, Energy and Sustainability: The Story of Doctor Copper and King Coal by Barry Golding, Suzanne D. Golding