By David J. Lilja
Measuring machine functionality units out the elemental innovations utilized in examining and knowing the functionality of computers. during the e-book, the emphasis is on sensible tools of size, simulation, and analytical modeling. the writer discusses functionality metrics and gives unique assurance of the techniques utilized in benchmark programmes. He supplies intuitive factors of the major statistical instruments had to interpret measured functionality facts. He additionally describes the overall 'design of experiments' process, and exhibits how the utmost volume of data could be acquired for the minimal attempt. The ebook closes with a bankruptcy at the means of queueing research. Appendices directory universal chance distributions and statistical tables are incorporated, besides a thesaurus of vital technical phrases. This practically-oriented e-book might be of serious curiosity to somebody who desires an in depth, but intuitive, figuring out of computers functionality research.
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Extra info for Measuring computer performance. A practitioner's guide
Thus, the number of degrees of freedom in this equation, which is the number of independent terms in the sum, is n À 1. As a result, the sum of the squared differences in this equation is divided by n À 1 instead of n. This equation de®nes the sample variance, but it is not particularly useful for calculating the variance given a set of measurements. Furthermore, this de®ni" before calculating the variance. tion requires our knowing the mean value, x, This implies that two passes must be made through the data, once to calculate the mean and a second pass to ®nd the variance.
Thus, MIPS, which is an acronym for millions of instructions executed per second, is de®ned to be MIPS n te Â 106 2:1 where te is the time required to execute n total instructions. De®ning the unit of `distance' in this way makes MIPS easy to measure (characteristic 4), repeatable (characteristic 3), and independent (characteristic 6). Unfortunately, it does not satisfy any of the other characteristics of a good performance metric. It is not linear since, like the clock rate, a doubling of the MIPS rate does not necessarily cause a doubling of the resulting performance.
The second method, however, would increase the value of f in the above calculation of the MFLOPS rating, thereby arti®cially in¯ating its value. This ¯exibility in counting the total number of ¯oating-point operations causes MFLOPS to violate characteristic 6 of a good performance metric. It is also unreliable (characteristic 2) and inconsistent (characteristic 5). 4 SPEC To standardize the de®nition of the actual result produced by a computer system in `typical' usage, several computer manufacturers banded together to form the System Performance Evaluation Cooperative (SPEC).
Measuring computer performance. A practitioner's guide by David J. Lilja