Download PDF by Adam Smith: La ricchezza delle nazioni

By Adam Smith

ISBN-10: 8841887001

ISBN-13: 9788841887004

Che cos'è l. a. ricchezza? Che cosa determina le sorti economiche di un individuo, di un'impresa, di una nazione? Molte delle risposte formulate negli ultimi duecento anni, anche quelle tra loro più lontane e confliggenti, sono nation espressione di scuole di pensiero scaturite in un modo o nell'altro dalla Ricchezza delle Nazioni. Testo fondante dell'economia politica moderna, intesa come scienza dell'analisi dei fatti economici - through through più formalizzata e autonoma rispetto ai sistemi filosofici -, il capolavoro di Adam Smith è anche considerato alla base del liberismo moderno, l'ideologia che considera il mercato come unico efficiente meccanismo di allocazione delle risorse, motore naturale dell'economia e garanzia del suo benessere. Smith, osservatore attento della Rivoluzione industriale, che stava prendendo piede in Gran Bretagna nella seconda metà del Settecento, è il primo e più importante interprete delle forze che in essa si dispiegano; dal loro studio, egli ricava gli elementi fondamentali di una teoria economica capace di interpretare il nascente capitalismo; elementi che verranno mutuati, criticati, rielaborati da tutti i modelli proposti nei secoli successivi consistent with spiegare l'economia, le scelte politiche, los angeles società. Nota biografica a cura di Anna Pellanda.

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E. j3 = 0 and can set the wage equal to the reservation wage iJJ, which here is assumed to be identical to the fully competitive, market-clearing level (point B in Fig. 2). Of course, if unions have no bargaining power, the labour market is in fact perfectly competitive so that full employment is reached at point B, where L denotes total labour supply at the competitive wage level. 1 Union Wage Bargaining 33 and minimum wage outcomes and the minimum and maximum employment levels. For all intermediate values of the bargaining, a wage rate in between these two extremes will result with the corresponding employment level given by the labour demand function.

E. at least one party could be made better off without making the other worse off, if the bargaining contract also specified the employment level. However, as shown by Layard and Nickell (1990), this result only holds in a partial equilibrium setting. In a general equilibrium, employment can actually decrease as a result of bargaining over employment. The economic intuition here is that such bargaining effectively increases union bargaining power as they are no longer faced with an invariant labour demand curve.

3) will be applied throughout. 9 The reasons why only wages and employment feature in the union utility function have been specified above. However, just as important when analysing union behaviour is whether unions and employers bargain over wages 9 See Booth (1995, Chap. 4) for a survey of empirical evaluations of union objective functions. 1 Union Wage Bargaining 27 only, or whether bargaining covers both wage and employment aspects. The former are analysed in "monopoly union" models, in which case the union determines the utility-maximising wage given the labour-demand function, or in "right-to-manage" models where firms and unions bargain over the wage rate and firms subsequently determine labour demand as a function of the negotiated wage rate.

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