By Nicholas Arndt, C. Michael Lesher, Steve J. Barnes
Komatiites erupted billions of years in the past as pulsating streams of white-hot lava. Their strange chemical compositions and incredibly excessive formation temperatures produced hugely fluid lava that crystallized as dazzling layered flows. research of the intense stipulations within which komatiites shaped offers very important proof concerning the thermal and chemical evolution of the planet, and the character of the Precambrian mantle. This monograph, written via 3 specialists with lengthy adventure within the box, offers an entire account of the features of komatiites together with their volcanic buildings, textures, mineralogy and chemical compositions. versions for his or her formation and eruption are evaluated (including the anhydrous vs. hydrous magmas controversy). A bankruptcy is additionally dedicated to the dear nickel and copper ore deposits present in komatiites. Komatiite is a key reference for researchers and complex scholars drawn to petrology, Archaean geology, monetary geology, and broader questions about the evolution of the Earth's crust and mantle.
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Extra resources for Komatiite
Most of the cumulate komatiites in the lava pathway and sheet-flow facies are depleted in highly incompatible trace elements, consistent with derivation from a depleted mantle source. , 2001). Komatiitic basalts are moderately to strongly enriched in highly incompatible trace elements and have anomalously low Nb–Th ratios. , 1985; Lesher and Arndt 1995). , 2001). 5 Komatiitic basalts on Gilmour Island The prime interest in these komatiitic basalts comes from their Proterozoic age. Apart from the Gorgona Island komatiites, they are the only known postArchean example of lavas with true, macroscopic spinifex textures.
Gorgona is a small tropical island just 30 km off the coast of Colombia, within easy reach of small, high-speed boats from the village of Guapi on the mainland. Palm-fringed and flanked by warm beaches, Gorgona was once a snake-infested prison colony; more recently it has been converted into a snake-infested national park and holiday resort. What attracts geologists to the island are the komatiite lava flows that are found on some of the beaches of the eastern and western coasts, and the remarkable picritic hyaloclastites at the southern tip of the island (Fig.
00 Onverwacht Group Hooggenoeg Fm Undifferentiated Moodies Group Syenite (c. 10 Ga) Fig Tree Group Granite (c. 10 Ga) Komati Fm W Weltevreden Fm Theespruit Fm M Mendon Fm TTG, foliated (c. 22 Ga) Kromberg Fm TTG gneisses (c. 45 Ga) Sandspruit Fm Fig. 1. Geological map of the Barberton greenstone belt (modified from Hofmann (2005)). narrow sections in streambeds can the structures and textures of individual flows be mapped out in detail. ’s (1973) study of the better exposed flows in Munro Township.
Komatiite by Nicholas Arndt, C. Michael Lesher, Steve J. Barnes