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However, in reality there are some experiments whose implementation shows that this is not always the case and that participants do not always obey the rules of game theory. It can be seen that factors such as trust, fairness, punishment, or simply a false assessment of a situation, can also play a role. In this context, a few experiments will be shown briefly below in which the participants (apparently) act irrationally. 2 Games under uncertainty: the Ellsberg paradox In this game the player has the choice between 2 urns, each with 100 balls, from which a ball is to be removed.

A step is preferred to the previous one, if two of the three players can improve their position and form a coalition with majority appeal. com 54 Introduction to Game Theory Negotiations (cooperative games Shares (1) Player 3 has the idea of dividing the cake so that each player receives 1/3 (2) Players 1 and 2 reject this and form a coalition in which each receives half. Player 3 receives nothing. (3) Because player 3 wants part of the cake as well, he has the following idea: he offers player 1 75% of the cake and takes 25% himself.

Sequential games are also known as games in extensive form. While simultaneous games are illustrated by means of matrices, sequential games are shown by means of a decision tree: Player 2 Player 1 X2 (A1, A 2) Y2 X1 (A1, A 2) X2 Y1 (A1, A 2) Y2 (A1, A 2) In this game, player 1 makes a decision first; he has the choice between X1 and Y1. Player 2 then makes his choice between X2 and Y2. Depending on what the choice of player 1 is, player 2 makes his decision in another node. Because the game’s information is known to the players, player 2 can already consider from the start how he will decide in which case.

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