By Josine Junger-Tas, Scott H. Decker
This entire reference paintings provides inside of info at the Juvenile Justice-systems in 19 various nations, either in outdated and new EU-member states and within the usa and Canada. The booklet is the results of learn carried out by means of a gaggle of remarkable researchers, who're inquisitive about developments in Juvenile Justice within the final 20 years, which blur the border among legal and juvenile justice.
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Additional resources for International Handbook of Juvenile Justice (Current Diagnostic Pediatrics)
There are other indications that juvenile courts are beginning to resemble criminal courts. , right to notice, right to counsel, right to remain silent, the requirement that guilt be proven “beyond a reasonable doubt”)23 which made court proceedings much more formal and adversarial than they had been previously. Recent changes have not expanded rights, but have instead chipped away at special protections that youth have traditionally enjoyed. Juvenile court proceedings have historically been closed to the public, juvenile records have been confidential and subject to later expungement, and at least nonserious juvenile offenders were exempt from photographing and fingerprinting.
The archetypal delinquent of a generation ago – the pot-smoking kid (of any color) who paints graffiti on walls and steals cars – was replaced by the menacing image of the Black gun–wielding drug dealer who commits random acts of lethal violence. Images of delinquents as dangerous and savvy prompted a stream of punitive legislation. Nearly every state and the federal jurisdiction enacted laws that both expanded the pool of transfer-eligibles and expedited their removal from the juvenile system.
Consequently, the proportion of delinquency cases in which a petition was filed rose from 50% of all referrals in 1990 to 57% in 1999. , convictions) also rose over the decade, from 60% of cases in 1990 to 66% in 1999. , 2003). Of those adjudicated, a smaller percentage were committed to out-of-home placements (32% in 1990 and 24% in 1999), but that may reflect the fact that institutions were already overcrowded. A much greater number of delinquents were incarcerated in 1999 than in 1990 (an additional 30,000 youngsters), and more large institutions (detention centers and training schools) were built to house them.
International Handbook of Juvenile Justice (Current Diagnostic Pediatrics) by Josine Junger-Tas, Scott H. Decker