By Valeri S. Gshalaev, Aleksandra C. Demirchan
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Additional resources for Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Properties and Applications
20 Sergey V. Dorozhkin Table 3. Synthesis of nanodimensional apatites – a chronological development  Year 1995 2000 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 Process Synthesis of nanocrystalline HA (particle size ~ 20 nm) for the first time using calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate as precursors by solution spray dry method. 4 from calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate salts in synthetic body fluid using a novel chemical precipitation technique.
Calcium orthophosphate bioceramics of micron dimensions have been used in dentistry, orthopedics and surgery for over 30 years because of their chemical similarity to calcified tissues of mammals and, therefore, excellent biocompatibility [148, 204-206, 259, 260]. Due to a rapid development of nanotechnology, the potential of nanodimensional and nanocrystalline forms of calcium orthophosphates has received a considerable attention  because they produce favorable results in repair of bone defects [583, 584].
The top-down approach starts from a bulk material and then, via different dimension decreasing techniques, such as milling, slicing or successive cutting, leads to the formation of nanodimensional materials . Using this approach, a novel 2-dimensional carbon material graphene of just 1 atom thick has been prepared from bulk graphite. Furthermore, environmentally friendly methodologies of nanostructure synthesis have been summarized into a special review . 16 Sergey V. Dorozhkin Concerning calcium orthophosphates, presumably, all of them (see Table 1) might be manufactured in a nanodimensional and/or a nanocrystalline state; however, not all of them (especially those with low Ca/P ionic ratios) have been prepared yet.
Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Properties and Applications by Valeri S. Gshalaev, Aleksandra C. Demirchan