By Charles Severance
The aim of this booklet, excessive functionality Computing has constantly been to educate new programmers and scientists in regards to the fundamentals of excessive functionality Computing. This e-book is for novices with a easy figuring out of contemporary desktop structure, now not complicated levels in machine engineering, because it is an simply understood advent and review of the subject. initially released via O'Reilly Media in 1998, the publication has when you consider that long past out of print and has now been published less than the artistic Commons Attribution License on Connexions.
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Additional info for High Performance Computing
Hence, as processor speed increases, vendors must add more of these memory system features to their commodity systems to maintain a balance between processor and memory-system speed. ŠBypassing cache Interleaved and Pipelined Memory Systems Vector supercomputers, such as the CRAY Y/MP and the Convex C3, are machines that depend on multibanked memory systems for performance. The C3, in particular, has a memory system with up to 256-way interleaving. Each interleave (or bank) is 64 bits wide. This is an expensive memory system to build, but it has some very nice performance characteristics.
A new page will have to be created in memory and possibly, depending on the circumstances, refilled from disk. Although they take a lot of time, page faults aren舗t errors. Even under optimal conditions every program suffers some number of page faults. Writing a variable for the first time or calling a subroutine that has never been called can cause a page fault. This may be surprising if you have never thought about it before. The illusion is that your entire program is present in memory from the start, but some portions may never be loaded.
Of course, given that a cache is smaller than main memory, you have to share the same cache lines for different memory locations. In caches, each cache line has a record of the memory address (called the tag) it represents and perhaps when it was last used. The tag is used to track which area of memory is stored in a particular cache line. The way memory locations (tags) are mapped to cache lines can have a beneficial effect on the way your program runs, because if two heavily used memory locations map onto the same cache line, the miss rate will be higher than you would like it to be.
High Performance Computing by Charles Severance