By Kenneth Michael Bauer
Dolpo is a culturally Tibetan enclave in a single of Nepal's so much distant areas. The Dolpo-pa, or humans of Dolpo, proportion language, non secular and cultural practices, background, and a lifestyle. Agro-pastoralists who stay in many of the maximum villages on the earth, the Dolpo-pa wrest survival from this inhospitable panorama via an artistic blend of farming, animal husbandry, and alternate. excessive Frontiers is an ethnography and ecological background of Dolpo tracing the dramatic adjustments within the region's socioeconomic styles. as soon as those investors handed freely among Tibet and Nepal with their caravans of yak to switch salt and grains; they depended on iciness pastures in Tibet to take care of their herds. After 1959, China assumed complete keep an eye on over Tibet and the border used to be closed, limiting farm animals migrations and sharply curbing alternate. even as, expanding offers of Indian salt diminished the worth of Tibetan salt, undermining Dolpo's financial area of interest. Dolpo's agro-pastoralists have been pressured to reinvent their lives through altering their migration styles, adopting new financial partnerships, and adapting to exterior brokers of switch. The sector has been remodeled as a result of production of Nepal's biggest nationwide park, the making of Himalaya, an immense movie filmed on position, the expanding presence of nongovernmental organisations, and a booming exchange in medicinal items. excessive Frontiers examines those variations on the neighborhood point and speculates at the way forward for pastoralism during this sector and around the Himalayas. (vol. sixty two, 2006)
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Additional info for High Frontiers: Dolpo and the changing world of Himalayan pastoralists
Villagers are compelled to perform manual work needed by the community, such as the building of trails and maintenance of irrigation canals. Most agricultural labor is likewise performed in groups, as an exchange of reciprocal labor among friends, neighbors, and relatives within villages. Communal labor gangs capture economies of scale and insure individuals against risks such as illness or accident. They serve important functions not only in agriculture but also in day-to-day pastoral management and fuel collection (cf.
Dolpo is a lens unto the second half of the twentieth century and the transformations to which pastoral communities of the trans-Himalaya have adapted. In chapters 4 and 5, I survey the post-1950 period, focusing on the nation-state building programs pursued by China in Tibet and by Nepal in its northern, culturally Tibetan regions. These parallel chapters show some of the development initiatives pursued by these states and trace the interactions of Nepal and China with their peripheral, pastoral populations.
The closing of the Indo-Tibetan frontier and the creation of modern borders delineated and transformed the spaces that pastoralists inhabited and depended upon for survival. Concentrating on trade, animals, and rangeland resources, I consider the interactions of peripheral groups in border areas with the processes of state formation and boundary making along a contested geopolitical frontier (cf. Agrawal 1998). These chapters also tell, in brief, the tale of the Tibetan resistance movement, and how the Indo-Tibetan frontier became a border.
High Frontiers: Dolpo and the changing world of Himalayan pastoralists by Kenneth Michael Bauer