By Rodney Stark
In God's Battalions, award-winning writer Rodney Stark takes at the long-held view that the Crusades have been the 1st around of eu colonialism, performed for land, loot, and converts via barbarian Christians who victimized the cultivated Muslims. on the contrary, Stark argues that the Crusades have been the 1st army reaction to unwarranted Muslim terrorist aggression.
Stark stories the heritage of the seven significant Crusades from 1095 to 1291, demonstrating that the Crusades have been induced via Islamic provocations, centuries of bloody makes an attempt to colonize the West, and surprising assaults on Christian pilgrims and holy areas. even though the Crusades have been initiated through a plea from the pope, Stark argues that this had not anything to do with any intricate layout of the Christian global to transform all Muslims to Christianity via strength of palms. Given present tensions within the center East and terrorist assaults all over the world, Stark's perspectives are a thought-provoking contribution to our knowing and are bound to spark debate.
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Extra resources for God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades
In 649 this new fleet was adequate to sustain an invasion of Cypress; Sicily and Rhodes were pil aged soon after. A major Muslim empire now ruled most of the Middle East and was free to continue spreading along the North African coast. But at this moment the Muslim conquests halted because a brutal civil war broke out within Islam and lasted for years. At issue were conflicting claims to be the true successor to Muhammad, which pitted Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law Ali against Muawiyah, cousin of the murdered caliph Uthman.
They ask: how could a bunch of desert barbarians rol over the large, trained armies of the “civilized” empires? As noted, many have attributed the Muslim conquests to an immense superiority of numbers, to hordes of Arabs riding out of the desert to overwhelm far smal er Byzantine and Persian forces. But desert tribes are never very large, and, in fact, the conquering Muslim armies usual y were substantial y smal er than the “civilized” armies they defeated. ” Final y, some historians have blamed the Byzantine and Persian losses on their being too civilized in contrast to fearless Islamic savages.
While Odo had been away gathering his forces, lack of opposition had encouraged Muslim arrogance, setting them up for a devastating defeat. They had constructed no defenses around their camp, had sent out no scouts to warn of an approaching threat, and may not even have posted sentries. Taken completely by surprise when the Franks attacked, the Muslims fled, many without their weapons or armor, and most of them were slaughtered by Frankish cavalry as they ran away. Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani was mortal y wounded.
God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades by Rodney Stark