Read e-book online Geometry: Euclid and Beyond (Undergraduate Texts in PDF

By Robin Hartshorne

ISBN-10: 1441931457

ISBN-13: 9781441931450

This booklet bargains a special chance to appreciate the essence of 1 of the nice thinkers of western civilization. A guided studying of Euclid's parts results in a serious dialogue and rigorous smooth remedy of Euclid's geometry and its more moderen descendants, with entire proofs. subject matters contain the creation of coordinates, the speculation of zone, heritage of the parallel postulate, some of the non-Euclidean geometries, and the ordinary and semi-regular polyhedra.

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Additional resources for Geometry: Euclid and Beyond (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics)

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Some modern axiom systems (such as Birkhoff (1932) or the School Mathematics Study Group geometry) build the real numbers into the axioms with a postulate of line measure, or include Dedekind's axiom that essentially guarantees that we are working over the real numbers. In this book, however, we will reject such axioms as not being in the spirit of classical geometry, and we will introduce only those purely geometric axioms that are needed to lay a rigorous foundation for Euclid's Elements. 22), where Euclid wishes to construct a triangle whose sides should be equal to three given line segments a, b, c.

E ,.. 13 Construct three circles, each one meeting the other two at right angles. 14 Given a line segment AB, divide it into three equal pieces (par = 6). ) Suzie's ruler broke into little pieces, so she can only draw lines one inch long. Fortunately, h er compass is still working. She has two points on her paper approximately 3 inches apart. Help her construct the straight line joining those two points. ) Joe's compass has rusted into a fixed position, so it can only draw circles whose radius is one inch.

We give two proofs. 47) to conclude that the square on BC is equal to the square on EF. 8). 47) and the theory of area. Extend FE to C and make EC = BC. 4). Therefore, AC = DC. It follows that DF = DC, so the triangle DFC is isosceles. Therefore, the angles at F and C are equal. 26). But DEC is congruent to ABC, so the two original triangles are congruent. The Theory of Parallels Book I of Euclid's Elements can be divided naturally into three parts. 26), deals with triangles and congruence. 27)- 38 1.

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Geometry: Euclid and Beyond (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics) by Robin Hartshorne

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