By Karen G. Ruffle
During this examine of devotional hagiographical texts and modern ritual performances of the Shi'a of Hyderabad, India, Karen Ruffle demonstrates how traditions of sainthood and localized cultural values form gender roles. Ruffle makes a speciality of the once a year mourning assemblies hung on 7 Muharram to commemorate the battlefield marriage ceremony of Fatimah Kubra and her warrior-bridegroom Qasem, who was once martyred in 680 C.E. on the conflict of Karbala, Iraq, ahead of their marriage used to be consummated.
Ruffle argues that hagiography, an enormous textual culture in Islam, performs a dynamic function in developing the reminiscence, piety, and social sensibilities of a Shi'i neighborhood. in the course of the Hyderabadi rituals that idealize and venerate Qasem, Fatimah Kubra, and the opposite heroes of Karbala, a special kind of sainthood is produced. those saints, Ruffle explains, function socioethical function versions and spiritual paragons whom Shi'i Muslims goal to mimic of their daily lives, bettering their own spiritual perform and social selves. On a broader neighborhood point, Ruffle observes, such practices support generate and strengthen team id, shared ethics, and gendered sensibilities. by way of placing gender and daily perform on the heart of her examine, Ruffle demanding situations Shi'i patriarchal narratives that current in basic terms males as saints and brings to gentle commonly missed women's spiritual practices.
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Extra info for Gender, Sainthood, and Everyday Practice in South Asian Shi’ism
The two men met while on ḥajj in Mecca, where they found their spiritual teacher, Shaykh Kalim Allah Shahjahanabadi, a Chishti Sufi master born in Delhi in 1650 who had come to Arabia to further develop his religious and mystical knowledge. 25 In his attempt to unseat Abu’l-Hasan (r. 1672–87), the last Shiʿi Qutb Shahi king of Hyderabad, Aurangzeb laid siege to the great fort of Golconda for eight months. In Muntakhāb al-lubāb (also known as The History of Khafi Khan), Khafi Khan, the historian of Aurangzeb’s reign, writes that “the period of the siege was prolonged.
17 Imitating saints imitating the life of Christ leads to the internalization of church values by training the body to enact belief, to perform ideology. 18 Jesus Christ is the most vivid example of the martyr saint, and the bodily practices that are ritually remembered and practiced in such events as the Passion during the Easter Holy Week demonstrate the enduring model and meaningfulness of the martyr saint in Christian tradition. SAINTS ARE “REAL” PE OPLE | 33 Typology: The Sufi Warrior Saint Some of the most revered saints in Sufi traditions are warriors (ghāzī or mujāḥid ).
In some hagiographies, such as that of the “two Yusufs” of Golconda, the warrior saint is further depicted as a socioethical exemplar whose model is to be imitated by others. In Realm of the Saint, Vincent Cornell identifies seven typological categories of sainthood in Moroccan Sufism. ”19 The ghawth provides succor and nurturance to his devotees. Cornell’s typological framework provides a useful model for understanding the myriad manifestations and institutions of sainthood within a specifically Moroccan context.
Gender, Sainthood, and Everyday Practice in South Asian Shi’ism by Karen G. Ruffle