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By Nina L Etkin Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University Of Hawai'i-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822

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Nonimaging systems include fiber optics, light pipes, solar concentrators, luminaires, and headlamps. 2. A light ray starts from the plasma of the discharge lamp. What surface does it encounter before it exits the system? It may intersect the glass envelope of the lamp, the lamp electrodes, or the reflector, or it may exit through the front aperture of the reflector. The order of, or even which, surfaces are encountered is not known in advance for each ray. Reflector Rays Optical Research Associates.

Foot. high-intensity discharge. high-pressure sodium. radiant intensity, measured in watts/steradian. luminous intensity. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. infrared. spectral luminous efficacy for photopic vision, defined as the element of luminous flux corresponding to the element of radiant flux. spectral luminous efficacy for scotopic vision. 683 lm/W at a wavelength of 555 nm (for photopic vision). 1700 lm/W at a wavelength of 510 nm (for scotopic vision). 1. lambert. 2. radiance, measured in watts/cm2/steradian.

The fluorescent lamp is a gas discharge source that contains mercury vapor at low pressure, with a small amount of inert gas for starting. Once an arc is established, the mercury vapor emits ultraviolet radiation. Fluorescent powders (phosphors) coating the inner walls of the glass bulb respond to this ultraviolet radiation by Illumination Fundamentals 31 emitting wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. Ballasts, which are required by both fluorescent and HID lamps, provide the necessary circuit conditions (voltage, current, and wave form) to start and operate the lamps.

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Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy by Nina L Etkin Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, University Of Hawai'i-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822


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