Duncan Cramer, Dennis Howitt's First Steps in Research and Statistics: A Practical Workbook PDF

By Duncan Cramer, Dennis Howitt

ISBN-10: 0415201012

ISBN-13: 9780415201018

First Steps in learn and Statistics is a brand new, very obtainable method of studying approximately quantitative tools. No prior wisdom or event is thought and each level of the study method is covered.
Key subject matters include:
* Formulating your examine questions
* the best way to decide upon the correct statistical attempt on your examine design
* vital learn concerns, corresponding to questionnaire layout, ethics, sampling, reliability and validity
* engaging in easy data to discover relationships and transformations on your data
* utilizing information to discover relationships and changes on your data
* Writing up your study document and proposing facts
Simple and beneficial worksheets and circulate diagrams advisor you thru the study levels. each one bankruptcy includes routines with solutions to ascertain even if you've understood.

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Extra info for First Steps in Research and Statistics: A Practical Workbook for Psychology Students

Example text

Generally speaking, the reliability of a measure increases the more items there are. Having more than one item allows us to measure the inter-item reliability of the scale. This gives us an idea of how consistent the items are as measures of the same characteristic. The use of several items allows us to assess the variable in different circumstances. For example, a measure of honesty might not be much use if it simply samples a single domain of experience. A good measure of honesty might include honesty in relation to one’s mother, one’s partner, the tax inspector, the boss, and so forth.

For example, we would expect a measure of intelligence to be strongly related to other measures of intelligence (convergent validity) but not to be related to measures of other variables such as anxiety and aggression (discriminant validity). • Construct validity represents the degree to which a measure responds in the way it is supposed to respond theoretically. For example, we would expect students to show greater anxiety prior to taking an exam than prior to listening to a lecture. If our measure did not discriminate between those two situations, we may question its construct validity.

If they fail to agree, there are obviously difficulties of interpretation. All of this may appear to be something of a nuisance. However, psychological research is not like measuring pieces of wood at the DIY store. Measurements in psychology are frequently matters of controversy and dispute as much as psychological theories are. The problems are part of the intellectual fascination of psychology. 1 STANDARD MEASURES In many fields of psychology there exist well-established measuring techniques.

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First Steps in Research and Statistics: A Practical Workbook for Psychology Students by Duncan Cramer, Dennis Howitt


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