Fib Bulletin 35 is the 1st bulletin to post documentation from an fib brief path. those classes are held around the globe and canopy complex wisdom of structural concrete regularly, or particular themes. they're prepared by way of fib and given through the world over famous specialists in fib, usually supplemented with neighborhood specialists energetic in fib. they're in response to the data and services from fib's ten Commissions and approximately fifty activity Groups.
fib Bulletin 35 offers the path fabrics constructed for the fast path "Retrofitting of Concrete constructions via Externally Bonded FRP, with emphasis on Seismic Applications", given in Ankara and Istanbul in June 2005. The path drew on services either from outdoor Turkey and from the big pool of neighborhood specialists in this subject.
In such a lot international locations of the area, the construction inventory is growing old and desires non-stop upkeep or fix. in addition, nearly all of latest buildings are poor within the mild of present wisdom and layout codes. the matter of structural deficiency of present structures is mainly acute in seismic areas, as, even there, seismic layout of buildings is comparatively contemporary. The direct and oblique expenditures of demolition and reconstruction of structurally poor structures are frequently prohibitive; moreover they entail a considerable waste of average assets and effort. accordingly, structural retrofitting is changing into more and more common through the world.
Externally bonded Fibre bolstered Polymers (FRPs) are swiftly turning into the means of selection for structural retrofitting. they're purifier and more straightforward to use than traditional retrofitting strategies, lessen disruption to the occupancy and operation of the power, don't generate particles or waste, and decrease healthiness and twist of fate dangers on the building web site in addition to noise and pollution within the surroundings.
fib Bulletin 35 supplies cutting-edge assurance of retrofitting via FRPs and provides correct provisions from 3 contemporary standardisation milestones: EN 1998-3:2005 "Eurocode eight: layout of buildings for earthquake resistance - half three: evaluate and retrofitting of buildings", the 2005 Draft of the Turkish seismic layout code, and the Italian regulatory record CNR-DT 200/04, "Instructions for layout, Execution and regulate of Strengthening Interventions through Fibre-Reinforced Composites" (2004).
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Additional resources for FIB 35: Retrofitting of concrete structures by externally bonded FRPs, with emphasis on seismic applications
As indicated in Table 3 coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of fibres, resins, FRPs and concrete are differing from each other. In the longitudinal direction FRPs 38 Detailing, technological aspects and durability have lower or nearly identical CTEs than that of concrete, however, in the transverse direction – governed mostly by the resin – have 5 to 8-times higher values. In specific cases, when high temperature variation takes place the large difference between CTEs can lead to high radial pressure on the surface of the reinforcement that can cause longitudinal splitting of concrete cover.
And Sukumar, S. (1998) Durability of Aramid Pretensioned Elements in a Marine Environment, ACI Structural Journal, V. 95, No. 5, pp. 578-587. , Rosas, J. and Sukumar, S. (1998) Durability of Carbon Pretensioned Elements in a Marine Environment, ACI Structural Journal, V. 95, No. 6, pp. 716-724. , Dill, M. and Hammersley, G. – Richardson, D. (1997) EUROCRETE – Taking Account of Durability for Design of FRP Reinforced Concrete Structures, Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. FRPRCS-3, JCI, Vol. , pp. 75-82. Tannous, F.
Such a synthetic quality makes FRP a good choice for civil engineering applications. This contribution is mainly based on Teng et al. 2002, where reference is made for details. 2 Methods of flexural strengthening The first study on RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets was done at the Swiss Federal Laboratory for Material Testing and Research (Meier et al. 1993). Strengthening of RC beams is generally done by bonding an FRP sheet to the beam as shown in Figure 1. It is very important that the RC beam should be prepared prior to the application of FRP sheet.
FIB 35: Retrofitting of concrete structures by externally bonded FRPs, with emphasis on seismic applications