By Stefan Poledna
Real-time computers are quite often topic to dependability standards as a result of their program components. Fly-by-wire plane keep an eye on platforms, regulate of energy vegetation, business technique keep watch over structures and others are required to proceed their functionality regardless of faults. Fault-tolerance and real-time standards hence represent a type of natural mixture in procedure keep watch over functions. Systematic fault-tolerance relies on redundancy, that's used to masks mess ups of person parts. the matter of copy determinism is thereby to make sure that replicated parts express constant habit within the absence of faults. it could look trivial that, given the same series of inputs, replicated desktops will produce constant outputs. regrettably, this isn't the case. the matter of copy non-determinism and the presentation of its attainable strategies is the topic of Fault-Tolerant Real-TimeSystems: the matter of copy Determinism.
the sphere of automobile electronics is a vital program zone of fault-tolerant real-time platforms. platforms like anti-lock braking, engine keep watch over, lively suspension or car dynamics keep watch over have challenging real-time and fault-tolerance standards. those necessities must be met even within the presence of very constrained assets in view that expense is intensely vital. as a result of its fascinating homes Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems supplies an creation to the applying sector of automobile electronics. the necessities of car electronics are an issue of debate within the rest of this paintings and are used as a benchmark to judge recommendations to the matter of copy determinism.
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Additional info for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems: The Problem of Replica Determinism
Server $1 assumes that servers S10, S11 and S12 are members of group G while server $2 assumes that only S10 and S l l are members of group G. Thus server S1 will send service requests to S10, S11 and S12, but server $2 will only send requests to S10 and S 11. Group G becomes inconsistent because servers S10 and S11 are acting on different requests than server S 12 does. 4 Non-deterministic program constructs Besides intended non-determinism, like (hardware) random number generators, high level languages such as Ada, OCCAM or Fault-Tolerant Concurrent C (FTCC) have non-deterministic statements for communication or synchronization [TS90].
9 A server is said to be asynchronous if no a priori known upper bound A exists. The communication delay can either be bounded or unbounded. If every service request sent between servers arrives at its destination within • real-time steps, for some a priori known ~ , the communication delay is bounded. Hence, this type of communication is called synchronous. For asynchronous communication there exists no known bounded delay ~ . Another distinction between synchronous and asynchronous systems is the existence of local clocks with a bounded drift rate.
This allows the implementation of fault-tolerance services which are transparent to regular functionality. Hence, systematic fault-tolerance has a lower complexity, compared to application-specific fault-tolerance. Furthermore, the separation of fault-tolerance handling and application functionality allows the reuse of the fault-tolerance mechanisms. In case of application-specific fault-tolerance this is not possible, it is necessary to designed the fault-tolerance mechanisms (reasonableness checks and state estimations) for each application.
Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems: The Problem of Replica Determinism by Stefan Poledna