By Donald L. Sparks
Environmental Soil Chemistry illustrates basic ideas of soil chemistry with appreciate to environmental reactions among soils and different usual fabrics and heavy metals, insecticides, commercial contaminants, acid rain, and salts. well timed and accomplished discussions of purposes to real-world environmental issues are a crucial concentration of this confirmed textual content. <*> offers scholars with either sound modern education within the fundamentals of soil chemistry and functions to real-world environmental matters <*> well timed and entire dialogue of significant options together with: sorption/desorption, oxidation-reduction of metals and organics, and results of acidic deposition and salinity on contaminant reacions <*> Boxed sections specialise in pattern difficulties and motives of keywords and parameters <*> huge tables on elemental composition of soils, rocks and sediments, pesticide sessions, inorganic minerals, and techniques of decontaminating soils <*> essentially written for all scholars and execs in environmental technological know-how and environmental engineering in addition to soil technological know-how
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NMR is essentially a bulk spectroscopic technique. 21. Illustration of the steps involved in analysis of an EXAFS spectrum, using the Co K-edge XAS of solid Co(OH)2 as an example. Subtraction of background (dashed line in the EXAFS spectrum) yields the EXAFS function (χ(k) x k3) vs k (Å–1). Fourier transformation of the background-subtracted EXAFS function yields a radial structure function (Fourier transform magnitude vs R (Å)), which contains peaks at different distances associated with various shells of neighboring atoms around Co.
SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION This technique involves the addition of an additive to excavated, contaminated soil so that the contaminants are encapsulated. The mixture is then landfilled. Thus, the contaminants are not free to move alone; however, they are not destroyed. This method has been employed to minimize inorganic pollutant contamination. 28 1 Environmental Soil Chemistry: An Overview CHEMICAL EXTRACTION In this treatment the excavated soil is mixed with a solvent, surfactant, or solvent/surfactant mixture to remove the contaminants.
PHYTOREMEDIATION The use of plants to decontaminate soils and water (phytoremediation) can be quite effective (Fig. 11). There are hundreds of plant species that can detoxify pollutants. For example, sunflowers can absorb uranium, certain ferns have high affinity for As, alpine herbs absorb Zn, mustards can absorb Pb, clovers take up oil, and poplar trees destroy dry-cleaning solvents (New York Times, 2001). , 2001). Brake ferns extracted 1,442–7,526 mg kg–1 As from the contaminated soils. 4 to 15,861 in two weeks.
Environmental Soil Chemistry by Donald L. Sparks