By Kevin McCormick
Engineers are a key occupational workforce within the transformation of the trendy international. Contrasts among Japans financial miracle and Britains relative monetary decline have usually been associated with adjustments in schooling, education and employment of engineers. but, such perspectives have frequently rested on little greater than vibrant anecdotes and selective information. utilizing cautious and systematic comparisons, Kevin McCormick locates the variations among rhetoric and truth to brush aside either the inflated claims of the Eighties and the over the top detraction of the Nineteen Nineties with Japans lengthy recession.
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Additional resources for Engineers in Japan and Britain: Education, Training and Employment (Nissan Institute Routledge Japanese Studies Series)
One of the more significant promotional efforts for private-sector development was that of the joint-stock company system (Nakagawa 1977). In a span of 40 years after its introduction the joint-stock company system had penetrated all the main sectors of the Japanese economy at a much faster rate than that achieved in England (Nakagawa 1977:21). One factor in this rapid diffusion was the close association between the introduction of the newest Western industrial technology with the newest social technology of business organisation.
Nakagawa cites a further factor in the preferences of the educated sons of ex-samurai for employment in joint-stock enterprises rather than traditional family businesses (Nakagawa 1977:22). At this stage, the role of engineers was still ill-defined, and as Hunter noted in her essay on Kikuchi Kyozo (1859–1942), they tended to be ‘hired as independent professionals rather than “company men”’ (Hunter 1991:146). The entry of the graduate engineers into management was not smooth, and they sometimes faced hostility from owners because they lacked capital and from workers because they were relatively highly paid (Hunter 1991:142–3).
By 1952, independence had been granted and the Japanese administration had more freedom to shape its own economic and industrial policy. Instead of continuing the logic of comparative advantage in ‘low quality textiles’ and ‘gadgetry’ based on abundant supplies of cheap labour, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) determined that Japan needed capital and technology intensive industries if it was to raise living standards for a population of 85 million people on a limited land space with few natural resources (Scott et al 1980).
Engineers in Japan and Britain: Education, Training and Employment (Nissan Institute Routledge Japanese Studies Series) by Kevin McCormick