By Yorick A. Wilks, Brian M Slator, Louise Guthrie
Using pcs to appreciate phrases remains to be a space of burgeoning study. electrical phrases is the 1st common survey of and advent to the whole variety of labor in lexical linguistics and corpora -- the research of such online assets as dictionaries and different texts -- within the broader fields of natural-language processing and synthetic intelligence. The authors combine and synthesize the ambitions and techniques of computational lexicons on the subject of AI's sister disciplines of philosophy, linguistics, and psychology. one of many underlying messages of the publication is that present learn may be guided by means of either computational and theoretical instruments and never merely by way of statistical thoughts -- that concerns have long gone a ways past counting to surround the tricky province of that means itself and the way it may be officially expressed.Electric phrases delves first into the philosophical heritage of the examine of which means, particularly be aware which means, then into the early paintings on treating dictionaries as texts, the 1st critical efforts at extracting info from machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs), and the conversion of MRDs into usable lexical wisdom bases. The authors supply a comparative survey of globally paintings on extracting usable constructions from dictionaries for computational-linguistic reasons and a dialogue of ways these constructions fluctuate from or have interaction with buildings derived from usual texts (or corpora). additionally coated are computerized options for examining MRDs, genus hierarchies and networks, numerical equipment of language processing regarding dictionaries, computerized processing of bilingual dictionaries, and shopper initiatives utilizing MRDs.
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Additional resources for Electric Words: Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings
177) The requirements for a ( Davidsonian) theory of truth for a language are as follows: L 1. For every sentence S of L there is a T sentence. (T) S of L is true if and only if p. 2. The T sentences are all TRUE. 3. The T sentences are all PROVABLE. 4. From a finite number of axioms (recursivity condition). 5. The metalanguage should contain the object language. , for all S) fix the meaning of the "true" for L. p is a logical description (or logical form) of S. Note the equation of logical form and truth conditions, but the claim itself can be understood and assessed without any actual logical forms being displayed.
113) a nd Schank (1975). As Katz puts it, "although the semantic markers are g iven in the orthography o f a natural language, they ca n not be ide n tified with the words or expressions of the la nguage used to provide them with suggestive labels" (p. 156). In other words, Katz co nsiders that primes 47 Primitives in Meaning Definition really exis t, qui te independently of the w ords used to describe, locate, or interpret them. T he issues in linguistics ar ose fr om the intr oductio n of a semantic c omp onent into a Chomsky an generative grammar by Katz and F od or (1963).
2. ( 1) Sally opened her eyes. 3. (4) The carpenter opened the wall. 4. (3) Sam opened his book to page 37. 5. (4) The surgeon opened the wound. 31 6. (13) The chairman opened the meeting. 7. (13) The general opened fire. 8. (12) Billy opened a restaurant. " The penalty for denying the sameness of meaning for 1-5 is "being forced to hold the view that the word 'open' is definitely or per haps infinitely ambiguous" (Searle 1969). He goes on: In each case the truth conditions marked by the word "open" are different, even though the meaning is the same.
Electric Words: Dictionaries, Computers, and Meanings by Yorick A. Wilks, Brian M Slator, Louise Guthrie