By Robert Stuart Yoder
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Extra info for Deviance and Inequality in Japan: Japanese Youth and Foreign Migrants
These commonalities relate to shared life situations and circumstances that set limits on opportunities and choices in the everyday lives of the working class. There are also, however, other conditions that need to be examined in order to clarify just what constitutes the working class and how class culture plays a dominant role in the lives of working-class youth. Given that socialisation practices, supervision and expectations of academic success for their children particularly by the mother differ widely by parents’ education and that the educational background of marriage partners is highly correlated (65% have the same level of education), the completed education of Japanese parents plays a vital role and stands out as a dominant feature of class culture (Sugimoto, 2003, pp 53-6).
If rates of status offences are standardised, about 9% of the youth population in 2008 was cited for acts of misbehaviour (most youth citations of pre-delinquent acts, from high to low, were for curfew violation, smoking, drinking alcohol, unsound companionship and gang activity). Class has not been given the attention it deserves in analyses of official actions taken against juvenile delinquency; rather, authors have alluded to a distorted version of class (that is, a loose official categorisation of class based on an index of income only) or most commonly simply ignored the issue of class altogether (Shikita and Tsuchiya, 1993; Foljanty-Jost, 2000; Yonekawa, 2003; Yoder, 2004).
Youth crime: past and present Ambaras (2006), in an excellent book entitled Bad Youth, provided detailed and well-documented historical information about youth deviance in Japan from the 17th century up to the end of the Second World War. The author demonstrated that the history of youth deviance follows a similar pattern over time, concluding that youth deviance today in Japan is a reflection of the past. Piecing together Ambaras’s (2006) historical accounts up to the end of the Second World War with contemporary works presented in this chapter, a history of youth deviance in Japan follows, focusing on similar trends of conflict between the state and its network of adult controls over youth.
Deviance and Inequality in Japan: Japanese Youth and Foreign Migrants by Robert Stuart Yoder