By Stephen Kershnar
On a few money owed, punishment is justified by means of the great effects that it brings approximately. particularly, punishment deters, incapacitates, and will, every so often, rehabilitate criminals. On a retributivist concept, punishment isn't really justified at the foundation of those fascinating effects, yet relatively at the undeniable fact that the culprit has performed whatever that merits punishment.
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Extra info for Desert, Retribution, and Torture
The cultural level concerns the shared ways of life, the values, norms, and patterns of thought which different sections of society (whether demonstrators, street-corner youths, or the police) develop on the basis of mutual experience, socialisation, and their place in the social structure. This includes not only people’s definitions of themselves and others, but also incorporates the rules informing their attitudes to using violence and 12 Waddington et al. 161. 2 The Revised Flashpoints Model of Public Disorder 21 recipes of action of relevance to particular situations and in relation to particular groups.
Les grands ensembles et leur peuplement’, Revue française de sociologie (1970), No. 11, pp. 3–33. 3 The French Riots of 2005 43 The end of the postwar economic boom took an enormous toll on the inhabitants of the suburbs, precipitating the high levels of unemployment that would become a permanent feature of these areas. At the same time, somatic diﬀerence, religious diﬀerence, and changing perceptions regarding immigrants were just some of the factors driving sociocultural exclusion and contributing to the growing divide between the suburbs and mainstream society.
54, No. 375–392. 158. 34 Ibid. 384. 383. 37 They are specifically referring here to ‘defining’ activities during the Greek riots such as the looting of department stores; clashes with police and attacks on police personnel, cars, and buildings; and the attacking of and setting fire to banks. 40 For these authors, spaces are ‘constructed’ over time in such a way as eventually to be invested with cognate meaning. 159. 159. 133–147. 161. 41 The diffusion from the initial flashpoint is therefore related to existing networks and affiliations; but as Kotronaki and Seferiades also emphasise, the urban makeup of the immediate environs is a related factor of great importance to this process: in simple terms, even the layout and density of the city’s urban streets are key factors in facilitating word-ofmouth communication and the capacity to assemble quickly and in great number.
Desert, Retribution, and Torture by Stephen Kershnar