By Niu, Michael C. Y.
This ebook is meant to boost the technical figuring out and functional wisdom of complicated composites, emphasizing the layout and manufacture of airframe buildings. All facets of composite layout are mentioned in a radical and rigorous model inclusive of instructions, observations, layout components, professionals and cons of layout circumstances, and troubleshooting concepts. one other goal of this e-book is to offer composite designers and engineers a realistic layout software, containing huge info and data won from earlier adventure and classes realized in layout and fabrication of composite parts that may be used to layout cost-effective and weight effective composite buildings with excessive structural integrity. Composite airframe structural layout encompasses just about all the engineering disciplines, and engineers desire hands-on details and knowledge which are technically sound and emphasize rational layout and technical research. This ebook used to be written with that want in brain.
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Additional info for Composite Airframe Structures - Practical Design Information and Data
1 A Flow Chart of Composite Laminate Part Fabrication 176 - I Manufacturing In composite manufacturing, it is difficult to draw a clear line between manufacturing and tooling systems because they are so closely related each other. Therefore, the tooling information in Chapter 3 should be considered simultaneously with composite manufacturing. The basic problem facing manufacturing engineers is producing composite hardware at an acceptable cost while ensuring its reliability. As matter of fact, almost any composite hardware can be fabricated if economic constrains are removed.
For elevated temperature forming and consolidation, where the tooling must go to the same temperature as the laminate, steel, carbon (graphite), or ceramic tooling material must be used. In forming operations where only the laminate is heated and then pressed into cold tooling, a variety of materials can be used, such as aluminum, wood and even rubber and silicone. Composite tooling differs from conventional (metallic) tooling as shown below: Tolerance build-up is much more critical The final machined dimensions of the tool are not necessarily the final dimensions of the composite part; the degree of disparity depends on: - Type of tooling - CTE characteristics Final part dimensions are those present at the ultimate gelation temperature of the matrix system Caefficient Thermal Expansion Heat Conductivity Material cost Aluminum Poor Good Good Steel Good Good Good Poor Good Graphite Excellent Good Good Good Poor Ceramics Excellent Poor Good Fiberglass Resin Composite Poor to Good Fair Good Good Poor Excellent Fair High Fair Poor Tool Material Fabrication I I Fair Fair Durability I I Fair Fair Graphite EPOXY Composite Fig.
Of course, the part size, geometry, complexity, and required quantity are all considerations in the selection of a fabrication process. Generally, the most labor-intensive step in composite fabrication, as shown in Fig. 2, has been the lay up of uncured tape plies, which is normally done by hand. On parts amenable to the tape form, advantage can be taken of the automated methods of dispensing and laying tape with pre-determined orientation and ply sequencing. Some companies have directed a large portion of their research efforts into the manufacturing process so that the implementation of automated systems could be cost-effective.
Composite Airframe Structures - Practical Design Information and Data by Niu, Michael C. Y.