By Andre Jungmittag, Guido Reger, Thomas Reiss
The internationalization of analysis and expertise is one key component to the globalization of alternate and company, with possibly significant affects on styles of financial improvement and public regulations around the world. even supposing convinced elements of this internationalization development are good documented, and a few results could be quantified, the final techniques are super advanced and the results are hugely doubtful. The life of the phenomenon is mostly accredited, yet its value and the traits are presently the subject of a full of life debate. This learn on "New methods in Drug improvement in prescription drugs" is a part of a 3 yr venture which goals at investigating how new strategies of commercial wisdom construction are applied within the various environ ments of the innovation structures of the USA and Germany. the focus of the general venture is a chain of case reviews of innovation perform in numerous nationwide and sectoral contexts. the next sectors and technological fields are investigated: prescription drugs and new methods in drug improvement by means of the Fraunhofer Institute for structures and Innovation examine (ISI), complicated fabrics through the college Hohenheim, Insti tute of foreign administration and Innovation (Alexander Gerybadze), monetary providers and residential banking by means of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology (MIT), middle for business functionality (Richard Lester) and the Sloan institution of administration (Edward Roberts). Financially the undertaking was once supported via the German-American educational Council, the German Federal Minstry of schooling, technological know-how examine and know-how and the Fraunhofer Society.
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Additional info for Changing Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Globalization and New Ways of Drug Development
Firstly, as shown above, the public share of funding the healthcare system is much smaller in the US anyway and secondly, the patients' own contributions for medical services are very much higher. For example, with Medicare (the health insurance for the over 65s) , the own contribution for medicine amounts to 100 %. Patients' own contribution towards medicine is much lower in Germany. The patients' contribution for medicine not on the fixed amount list are charged according to the package size and "fixed amount medicines" are reimbursed up to the limit of the fixed amount.
The major restriction of cooperative industrial research is its limitation to pre-competitive problems, since several companies in the same industry have to cooperate. In some less research-intensive industries the share of cooperative research compared with the total R&D activities is quite large. However, in research-intensive industries like chemicals the role of cooperative research is negligible. Technology transfer in public and semi-public organizations is realized in different ways and to different extents.
Finally, some conclusions for the international competitiveness of the pharmaceutical industry in selected countries are drawn from the empirical findings. 3. 2 Production, Consumption and Employment Unlike many other sectors of manufacturing industry, growth in the pharmaceutical industry is relatively independent of the business cycle. This relatively even growth is seen in the development of the production of pharmaceuticals in terms of billions of US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) (cf. 2).
Changing Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Globalization and New Ways of Drug Development by Andre Jungmittag, Guido Reger, Thomas Reiss