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By Hugh George Rawlinson

An vital Account of the Greek country That governed the Hindu Kush for hundreds of years within the Wake of Alexander the Great
“If throughout the Bactrian Empire eu principles have been transmitted to the some distance East, via that and related channels Asiatic rules chanced on their approach to Europe.”—Intellectual improvement of Europe
Following the Macedonian invasion of Persian within the fourth century B.C., an self sufficient Greek-ruled empire emerged over a space encompassing glossy Afghanistan, japanese Iran, and northern Pakistan. This old empire, known as Bactria, is recorded in texts, either Asian and eu, in addition to via cash, inscriptions, and architectural remnants. Bactria served as a touch aspect among Europe, South Asia, and the some distance East for greater than 200 years sooner than disappearing below the strain of a resurgent Persia to the west and Indian states to the east. In Bactria: The heritage of a Forgotten Empire, historian Hugh G. Rawlinson starts with the early historical past of Bactria and its subjugation by means of Persia, after which describes the conquest of Iran by way of Alexander the good and the institution of an self sufficient Bactria governed by way of Greeks. The Bactrians followed Buddhism early on and helped determine the faith through the sector. the writer then follows the background of the empire via its rulers, together with Menander, until eventually Greek rule was once extinguished round one hundred thirty five B.C. eventually, the writer discusses the results of Greek career at the sector. in keeping with meticulous study in historical texts from Greece, Persia, and India, and utilizing fabric facts of the time, this heritage, which gained the Hare college Prize at Cambridge in 1909, is still proper this day, delivering a desirable portrait of a little-known connection among East and West.

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In describing one of the inauy outbreaks which rendered the reduction of Baclria aud Sogdia such a colossal task to Alexander, Curtins says :-" Alexander was again checked by news of from revolt in Sogdia, which llad spread over Bactria as well ............ Spitamenes and Cateues h a d spread a rumour that Alexander was goiug to snmmoil all tho " Xquites " and put them to death. b o w there were ssvon thousand of these whom the yesl obeyed (vii millia erant qnorum auctoritati ceteri seqnebantur (') )".

C. The hymns oC the %end-Avesla conLaiu, as we have scen, oue allusion al leasl, which seems to l ~ o i n tto a Baclrinn origin" IVe I 1 J u s t i n , 2. 3. ,iT-e. s. v Zoronster. -Litcratllre seems Lo be indebted to J3actriR for the lignius of thc Zend- a vestn. It i s curious to note that two corninpi? l>sol the present d;ry s e e m to have had ;I Bactri:~n o u p n . spe:~lringof Alexander to Uessus, #aid:-''His bark is worse thnn his bite ; it is the still water which deop ". ) - Q. Crutius, VI1.

The cavalry were equipped in the same manner. These can hardly have been the mme force as the f m o u e Bactrian kuights who 1 l l e r o d o t u s VTI. 64. won immortal renown in the operations against Alexander the Great. It may be that the Iranian horse did actually serve in this campaign, but that they Kcre armed in the same way as the Persian heavy cavalry, and hence did not find a place in the pict~~resguecatalogue of Eook VII. I t is noteworthy, however, that when Mardonins was selectiug a picked force to carry on the campaign aCter Llle retreat of Xerxes, he chose " Medes, Sacae, Eactrinns and Indians, both Infantry and Cavalry " (PI11 113), which attests to the military prowess 01tkc Bactrian troops.

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Bactria: The History of a Forgotten Empire by Hugh George Rawlinson

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