By Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno
This ebook offers a scientific research of many universal argumentation schemes and a compendium of ninety six schemes. The learn of those schemes, or types of argument that trap stereotypical styles of human reasoning, is on the middle of argumentation study. Surveying all elements of argumentation schemes from the floor up, the booklet takes the reader from the effortless exposition within the first bankruptcy to the most recent state-of-the-art within the study efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, defined within the final bankruptcy. It offers a scientific and entire account, with notation compatible for computational purposes that more and more utilize argumentation schemes.
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Additional info for Argumentation Schemes
A tion of the premises of the scheme and the matching c ritical questions was obviously clumsy. In some instances, for example, it seemed that the c ri tical question merely asked whether one of the prem ises was true or acceptable. Th us it looked as if either the premise or the cri tical question was redundant. These same problems were perhaps even more evident in Hastings' ( 1 963 ) initial attempt to in troduce a comprehensive set of schemes wi th matching critical questions. Now that we have a new software system for argumenta tion diagram ming that can accommodate argumen tation schemes, many of these tech n ical issues of how to c lean up the schemes appear more pressing.
2 is not medicine, but physics. Therefore , this argument doesn 't even get off the ground. The domain variable , S, in the major premise stands for medicine, while S in the m i nor premise stands for physics. The problem seems to be one of equimcation, or perhaps one of the argument not fi tting the argumenta tion scheme at all (although it may superficially appear to, in the view of the uncdtical th in ker) . And yet there is another way of diagnosi ng the problem or fallacy in the argument in the Bradshaw example.
J . Reynolds is an expert on tobacco. ( C ) Johnston is an expert on tobacco. ( D ) Joh nston says that tobacco is not addictive (etc . ) Therefore, ( E) "Tobacco i s not addictive" may plausibly b e taken to be true. ( I n Figure 1 · 3· the scheme is again shown as a shaded outline; the greyed boxes indicate reconstructed c l ai ms that ha,·e been in troduced during the analysis rather than being presen t in the original . ) One problem here i s the slight dubiousness of the second premise, ( B ) , as a generalization .
Argumentation Schemes by Douglas Walton, Christopher Reed, Fabrizio Macagno