By Betsy Price
This booklet explores the interrelationship among fiscal perform and faith, ethics and social constitution in a few old cultures, together with historical East Indian, Hebraic, Greek, Hellenistic, Roman and rising eu cultures.
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Additional info for Ancient Economic Thought (Routledge Studies in the History of Economics)
38 There are frequent references to the importance of acquiring wealth “without disregarding the requirements of virtue” (the Mahabharata, rpt. 1993:vol. VIII, 367). 39 The very way wealth was classified indicated what the ancients considered good and bad. Wealth was described as white (Sukla), dark-white mixed (sabala) and black (Krsna). through (instructing) a pupil, by sacrificing and by inheritance”. The second set consisted of “what is acquired by lending money at interest, tillage, commerce, in the shape of sulka (gift), by artistic performance, by servile attendance, or as a return for a benefit conferred on someone”.
In this sense there were numerous religious sects, although differences were not significant. Even when reformist sects such as Buddhism HAPPINESS, ETHICS, AND ECONOMIC VALUES 25 and Jainism introduced substantial points of departure in philosophical tenets and forms of ritual with the rest, at the level of day-to-day living, followers of all the religious denominations believed in broadly similar ethical practices. Invariably, the earlier writings generally tended to confine themselves to broad statements about good and bad, right and wrong.
Quite apart from the specific injunctions (swadharma) to kings, commoners, learned scholars, women and other such groups, which at times border on the ridiculous, there are also the duties and ideals (Sadharanadharma) intended for everyone. The following is a tentative list, although every lawgiver has his own preferences. 1 To be controlled: attachment (raga) antipathy (dvesa) ignorance (tamah) anger (krodha) pride (mada) jealousy (matsarya) lust (kama) HAPPINESS, ETHICS, AND ECONOMIC VALUES 29 greed (lobha) 2 Virtues to be cultivated: determination self-denial compassion charity purity peace of mind restraint learning and knowledge patience self-adjustment steadiness forgiveness truthfulness sincerity of mind non-injury/free of cruelty forbearance freedom from backbiting sweet speech (vairagya) (Tapas) (Daya) (Dana) (Shaucha) (shama) (dama) (Vidya) (titiksha) (samadhana) (dhairya) (ksama) (satya) (anupadha) (ahimsa) (Santi) (apaisunyam) (Priyavadita) Buddhist and Jain texts also attempt a systematic presentation of ethical teachings.
Ancient Economic Thought (Routledge Studies in the History of Economics) by Betsy Price