# New PDF release: An introduction to statistical finance

By Bouchaud J.-P.

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1 A sensor collects radiation and reports its intensity, usually as a function of position. Separate 38 Chapter 3 Formulating Pragmatic Frames and Ontologies components generally perform the functions that are part of the measurement process. A detector provides a measurement of the incident radiation. An optical system collects the radiation incident on the instrument and directs it to the detector. A pointing system determines the direction from which radiation will come. Each type of sensor has its own components to perform these functions.

The following table provides a mapping that shows how to interpret any instance of the schema as one set of world state descriptions. XML segment Maps to ... ... ditto for dislikes community members = {x1,x2. . ,xn} Likes= {(x1,x2). . ,(xn,xm)} For example, the instance above is interpreted as stating that the community members are persons with names, a, b, and c, where a likes b and c, while b dislikes c.

This allows your browser to treat “some text” as a title and place this text in an appropriate area for display. A parser can traverse the recursive structures defined by such context-free syntax and extract the marked text fragments. But basically this all has to do with layout and links to other Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), not with the meaning of the document. XML goes one major step further. It allows documents to carry or point to definitions of the tags used within them, thereby setting up the basis for their semantic interpretation.