By Toby Seddon
'A historical past of gear' info the historical past of the connection among medicines and freedom during the last 2 hundred years; therefore irritating and unravelling the 'naturalness' of the 'drug question', because it lines the a number of and heterogeneous traces of improvement out of which it's been assembled. advent : medicinal drugs, freedom and liberalism -- A conceptual map : freedom, the "will" and dependancy -- Opium, legislation and classical liberalism : the drugstore act 1868 -- medicines, prohibition and welfarism : the damaging medicinal drugs act 1920 -- medicinal drugs, threat and neo-liberalism : the medication act 2005 -- medications as a law and governance challenge -- Conclusions : medicinal drugs and freedom within the liberal age
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Additional info for A history of drugs : drugs and freedom in the liberal age
Moreover, by treating … human life itself as an object of commerce, both slavery and gambling on lives denied to their subjects the primary article of ownership assumed in any Lockean political compact: possession of the self. It was therefore to an emerging consciousness of the problematic 40 A History of Drugs relationship between economic and political liberty that the eighteenthcentury insurance ‘imaginary’ owed its demise. (Clark, 2002: 88) It was, of course, exactly this valorization within liberal governance of freedom as individual autonomy that at the same time underpinned the historical coincidence of concerns about habitual drug consumption with the emergence of liberalism – leading O’Malley (2004: 155) to describe it as a ‘peculiarly liberal afﬂiction’.
It is almost ungraspable. Is addiction a personality disorder? A symptom of a genetic weakness? A psychiatric condition? A failure to cope with life? A result of poverty and disadvantage? A consequence of reckless consumption of dangerous substances? Or is it simply a chimera? 2 ‘Master’ changes in conceptions of the ‘will’ in liberal government Phase One: Classical liberalism Phase Two: Welfare liberalism Phase Three: Neo-liberalism 1. Nature of ‘will’ Will as volition or capacity to choose how to act Will as an attribute of ‘normal’ citizens 2.
Indeed, the relationship between doctors and the state was substantially reﬁgured during this period (Brand, 1965; Osborne, 1993). It was not just opium that was of concern either – anxieties about arsenic poisoning, for example, led to the Arsenic Act of 1851 (Bartrip, 1992) – but opium was the most common drug involved in poisoning deaths, both accidental and suicidal, throughout this period. During the 1860s, for instance, opiates accounted for around one third of all deaths by poisoning (Berridge and Edwards, 1981: 79).
A history of drugs : drugs and freedom in the liberal age by Toby Seddon